 An Encyclopedia of A-Z Problems of Human Life and their Solutions by Dr. Jonah Home Encyclopedia Contents Problems A, B, C, D Problems E, F, G, H Problems I, J, K, L Problems M, N, O, P Problems Q, R, S, T, U Problems V, W, X, Y, Z Computer & Internet Terms A--Z World History A--Z Music Terms A--Z Medical Terms A--Z Math Terms A--Z Acronyms & Abbreviations A--Z About Dr. Jonah Diseases---Causes, Symptoms & Treatment End Time Prophecies & Events Photo Gallery Search The Site Dr. Jonah's Novel on Romance & Crime Dr. Jonah's Book on Nutrition & Health Contact Dr. Jonah References of Encyclopedia  Some Relevant Math Terms from A to Z and Their Meaning

 TERM MEANING Absolute Value Distance between a number and 0 on number line Abundant Number A number smaller than the sum of its divisors Algebra A branch of math where letters represent numbers Algorithm A step by step procedure to solve a problem Annulus Region between 2 concentric circles Arithmetic A branch of mathematics involving number calculations. It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication & division. Attribute A characteristic showing shape, size or color Axiom Something accepted as true without any proof Bar Graph Vertical or horizontal bars that represent data Bar Notation Method of recording recurring decimals Base Bottom of a figure or object Binary System Number system using base number 2. Digits 0 & 1 are used to express each number. Bisect Dividing into 2 equal parts Braces { } symbols that refer to sets Calculus A branch of math dealing with integrals, derivatives & rates of change Cardinal Numbers Number of elements in finite/infinite sets Centroid The point where the 3 medians of a triangle intersect Chord An interior line joining 2 points on circle circumference Circumference Distance around a circle Coefficient A number that multiplies a letter (variable) Collinear Points 3 or 4 points lying on the same straight line Composite Number Number having factors other than 1 and itself Congruent Possessing same size and same shape Decagon Polygon with 10 sides Decahedron A three dimensional shape having 10 plane faces Deficient Number Any number larger than the sum of its divisors Denominator Bottom number of a fraction Discrete Data Data with finite or limited value Divisor The dividing number Element An item or member in a set Ellipse A stretched or flattened circle Equiangular All angles are equal Equilateral Triangle A triangle having 3 equal sides and angles Even Number Any number that can be divided by 2 like  4, 10, 16 Exponent A tiny number to upper right of base number denoting the times the base number should multiply by itself. Expression Symbol referring to a number or variable Extremum It is extreme value of a function Factor A number dividing into another number exactly Figure Two dimensional shape Finite Which can be counted to a limit Formula An equation stating a rule Fortnight 14 days or 2 weeks Fraction A section of  a number Frequency Occurring repeatedly Function The relationship between 2 variables Gallon Equals 3.78 litters Geometry A study of angles, curves and lines in 2 & 3 dimensions Googol 1 followed by 100 zeros or 10 raised to 100th power Googolplex Largest number with a name. Its value is 10 raised to googol power Greatest Common Factor (GCF) Greatest number that divides two or more other numbers exactly. GCF for 12, 18 & 24 is 6. Gross Mass Includes product & container Gross Profit All the money that was received Half-Life Amount of time taken for a substance to diminish by half. Half life of isotope carbon-14 is 5730 years. Hectare 10, 000 square metres Hectometre 100 metres Heptagon Polygon with 7 sides Hexagon Polygon with 6 sides Hypotenuse Longest side of a right angled triangle Icosahedron Polyhedron with 20 faces Improper Fraction A fraction where the numerator is equal or greater than its denominator like 6/4 Index Exponent Infinite Unlimited number or number without an end Integers All negative & positive whole numbers and zero too Isometric Containing equal measurements Isosceles Triangle Triangle with 2 equal sides and angles Jointly Proportional 1 variable directly proportional to other variables one at a time Jump Strategy To make a calculation, a jump is made along an empty number line by 10s and 1s Kilogram Equals 1000 grams Kilometre Equals 1000 metres Least Common Denominator Smallest whole number used as denominator for two or more fractions Lemma A stepping stone for proof of a theorem Linear Referring to a straight line Locus A set of points forming a geometric figure Logarithm It is a power to which a base should be raised to achieve a desired number Mathematics (Math/Maths) Study of various calculations, numbers, quantities, shapes and space using symbols, equations and formulae. Matrix A rectangular array of numbers written in parenthesis/brackets Mean Average Median The middle number in a series of numbers Minor Arc The smaller curve of a circle when it is divided into 2 curves Mixed Number A whole number with a fraction like 7 1/2 Mode Numbers occurring most frequently in a list Monomial A single term in algebraic expression Natural Numbers Regular numbers that are counted Negative Integer A number less than zero but not a decimal or fraction Nonagon Polygon with 9 sides Number Sentence Math sentence using only symbols and numbers Numeral Symbol referring to a number Numerator Any number above fraction line Obtuse Angle Angle between 90 degrees and 180 degrees Obtuse Triangle A triangle with one obtuse angle at least Octagon Polygon with 8 sides Odd Number Any number that can’t be divided by 2 like 9, 15 Opposite Numbers Two same numerals that have opposite signs like +57 and -57 Ordinal Number referring to order like first, second, third Outcome In probability, it refers to one of the possible results Palindrome Number Any number that shows same value forwards & backwards like 666, 77477 Parabola U shaped curve where any point on it is equally distant from a fixed point and a fixed straight line Pentagon Polygon with 5 sides Perfect Number A number which is equal to sum of its dividing numbers Pi Ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle Polygon A plane figure with 3 or more sides Polyhedron A 3-D object with polygons as its faces Prime Number Any number that is divided evenly by 1 and itself like 11, 19 Proper Fraction A fraction where the numerator is lesser than its denominator like 6/8 Proportion Equality of 2 ratios Quadrangle Polygon with 4 angles Quadrilateral Polygon with 4 sides Quadrillion 1 000 000 000 000 000 (10 raised to 15th power) Quantitative Data Information that can be counted or measured Quotient The result of a division problem Radius Distance from circumference to center of a circle Ratio Relation or comparison between 2 quantities Ray A straight line having starting point but no end point Reciprocals Two numbers whose product is one Reflex Angle An angle that measures between 180 degrees and 360 degrees Rhombus Parallelogram having all sides and opposite angles equal Right angle Angle measuring 90 degrees Scalene A triangle with 3 sides unequal Set Group of items that are called elements Sin Ratio of length of opposite side to hypotenuse length of a right angled triangle Skew Lines Those lines not lying in the same plane in space Solid 3D shape with length, width & height Speed The movement of something over a distance in a given time Square root A number that multiplies by itself produces original number Straight Angle An angle which measures 180 degrees Tangent line A line touching a curve at a point without crossing over Tangram A square that is cut into 7 pieces Term A number in sequence, or a series, or part of algebraic equation Tessellation Different shapes fitting together without any gap Triangle Polygon with 3 sides Trigonometry (Trig) A study of triangles Trinomial Algebraic expression with 3 terms Unit A standard quantity like a pound is a unit of weight Unit Rate In 2 measurements comparison one of the terms has value of 1 Unlikely A probability outcome between 0 and 0.5 Value Numerical amount Variable A letter used to represent a number or numbers in equations and expressions Vector A quantity which has direction and magnitude (amount). Velocity & force are examples of vector. Vertex Corner Vinculum Horizontal line over a symbol or symbols Volume Amount of space Whole Amount in total; all Whole Number A number from 0 to infinity Width Breadth x A symbol referring to unknown quantity in equations X Roman numeral for 10 X-axis Horizontal axis of a graph Y-axis Vertical axis of a graph Y-intercept A point where a graph intersects the y-axis Yard Equal to 36 inches or 3 feet Z-intercept A point where a graph intersects the z-axis Zero The number that has no quantity. It is used as place holder. The 0 symbol was invented around 500 AD by Hindu mathematicians and not by Arabs. Zero Matrix Where all elements are equal to zero Zero Vector A vector with zero magnitude (amount)

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