and Prevention of Diseases and Cancers
and various Nutrients
Fallacies and Frauds
and Non Communicable Diseases
role of Nutrition in Prevention or Reduction of Risk Factors
for Certain Diseases and Cancers
and Various Nutrients
is a significant factor for man to live.
By the way, what is nutrition? Nutrition is a process
where the body ingests, digests, absorbs, utilizes the food
and also excretes the waste of it. In other words, nutrition
is the study of food and how it is used for the needs of the
is health? According to WHO (World Health Organization) Health is a complete state of the
physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an
absence of disease or infirmity.
is nutritional status? It is the state of the body determined
by the nutritional process. The state of the body could be
normal nutrition or under-nutrition or over-nutrition.
are substances that nourish the body. The nutrients can be
classified as follows:
are water, carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Micro-nutrients
are vitamins and minerals. One should know the functions,
sources and the recommended dietary allowances of the
nutrients in order to prevent or reduce risk factors for
diseases and cancers and live healthily. The main functions of
the nutrients in the body, sources and requirements of
nutrients along with energy requirements and eating variety of
foods are discussed in this chapter.
is the largest macro-nutrient in the body. Water constitutes
nearly 60% of the total body weight of an adult. The functions
of water are as follows:
transports the nutrients to their cells.
foods we eat are generally mixed with saliva when we chew,
which in turn, assists to digest the food.
acts as a lubricant. It avoids friction in the various parts
of the body.
bodys wastes are excreted through water.
body maintains moisture, for example, in mucus, tears and
also helps in the regulation of temperature by excreting or
evaporating water in the skin.
aids in function of every cell in the body.
is a component of blood and lymph fluids.
It acts as solvent.
sources of water
which we drink everyday, should be purified and without the
presence of any chemicals and pathogenic micro-organisms.
Apart from drinking water, even ingested food has about
500-1000ml of water. The metabolic water in the body is about
300ml. The water, which we take in, either through liquids or
solid foods, will be used and there will be loss of water
through urine, perspiration, evaporated water from the lungs
and through feces.
daily requirements of water
normal adult must drink about 1.5 to 2 liters of water
everyday. Adults living
in very hot places must drink more than 2.5 liters of water
are the second largest macro-nutrients in the body. The
chemical elements of carbohydrates are carbon, oxygen and
hydrogen. Carbohydrates can be classified into simple
carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates
are monosaccharides (single sugar) and disaccharides (double
sugars). Complex carbohydrates are polysaccharides (starches
and dietary fibers). Examples of monosaccharides are glucose,
fructose and galactose and those of disaccharides are sucrose,
maltose and lactose. The examples of polysaccharides are
starch, dextrin and dietary fibers.
is produced by fermenting carbohydrates in foods and it is an
alcohol chemically. Alcohol
gives 7 kcals of energy per gram or 5.6 kcals per millilitre.
Throughout this book, alcohol is discussed as a part of
nutritional problems because of its addictive nature and
adverse effects on health.
functions of carbohydrates in the body
main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy. It gives
4 kcals per 1 gram. Carbohydrates
have chemical structures that combine with hydrogen to
manufacture non-essential amino acids. Carbohydrates form part
of some structures like cartilage, bone and nervous tissue.
Carbohydrates help to complete the cellular-metabolism of
fats. Carbohydrates are
also known as protein sparers, in other words, they spare the
protein from giving energy because carbohydrates give energy.
Fibers have several functions in the body. Though dietary
fiber is not digested in the intestinal tract, it helps the
feces to be softer and bulkier. Dietary fiber absorbs and
holds water in the colon. It also aids to avoid constipation.
Another function of dietary fiber is it assists indirectly in
the prevention of certain diseases. Since dietary fiber
inhibits absorption it can indirectly help to prevent obesity.
It can also aid to prevent colon
cancer and atherosclerosis.
Dietary fibers can be further classified
into water insoluble
dietary fibers and water soluble dietary fibers. The examples
of water insoluble dietary fibers are cellulose and
hemi-cellulose. The examples of water soluble fibers are
pectins, gums and mucilages.
Sources of Carbohydrates
sources of simple carbohydrates are fruits, vegetables, sugar
cane, honey and milk. The sources of complex carbohydrates are
legumes, vegetables and whole grain cereals. The sources of
water insoluble dietary fibers are wheat bran, seeds, nuts,
carrots and leafy vegetables. The food sources of water
soluble dietary fibers are oat bran, barley, legumes, oatmeal
and all citrus fruits like oranges and grapes.
is no recommended dietary allowance for carbohydrates.
However, about 60% of the total dietary intake should
come from carbohydrates. The
daily intake of dietary fiber is 25 grams per 2000 kcals.
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Nitrogen makes
about 1/6th of the protein. The basic structure of
proteins is amino acids. In other words amino acids are the
building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are divided into
essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. Essential
amino acids are called so because they can be acquired only
through diet. Some examples of amino acids are lysine,
phenylalanine and tryptophan. Nonessential amino acids can be
synthesized by the body, apart from being received through the
diet. Some examples of
them are cystine, proline and tryosine.
functions of proteins in the body
cell has proteins as its essential component. Collagen is a
major structural protein in the blood vessels, skin walls,
bones, ligaments, and tendons. Regulatory materials of the
body contain proteins. Chromosomes
are examples of nucleo-proteins. Insulin and thyroxine, which
are hormones, are also made up of proteins. Proteins help in
transportation. Examples of which are lipoproteins, hemoglobin
and transferrin. Proteins give energy. One gram of protein
gives 4 kilocalories.
sources of complete proteins are basically from animal and
dairy products like eggs, meat, milk, chicken and fish. The
food sources of incomplete proteins are beans, nuts, grains,
RDA of protein for men (25-50 years) is 63 grams and for women
of the same age group is 50 grams.
The RDA or estimated safe and adequate daily dietary
intakes (ESADDI) for various nutrients in this book is taken
from Recommended Dietary Allowances, 1989, by the National
Academy of Sciences, Washington DC.
can be classified into simple, compound and derived lipids.
Lipids are basically fats and oils. The chemical elements of
lipids are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Nevertheless,
they have less proportion of oxygen when compared to
carbohydrates. There are few lipids, which contain phosphorus,
proteins, carbohydrates and nitrogen. The major structural
constitution in lipids is fatty acids.
The examples of simple lipids are fats and oils. The
examples of compound lipids are phospholipids and glycolipids.
The examples of derived lipids are sterols like
cholesterol and sex hormones.
functions of lipids in the body
give concentrated energy in the body. One gram of fat gives 9
kilocalories. Lipids act as insulators and they protect the
body from cold and maintain constant body temperature. Lipids
also support organs in
the body such as the liver and the kidneys. The essential
fatty acids are good for the growth of the skin. Linoleic acid
is required for healthy skin for both children and adults.
Cholesterol, which is an example of derived lipids, has vital
functions in the body. Cholesterol is another constituent of
the tissues, like in the formation of the brain and nervous
tissues. It is a
precursor of sex hormones.
sources of visible lipids are oils, butter, fat around organ
meats and skin of chicken. Sources
of invisible lipids are egg yolk, cheese, whole milk, yogurt,
ice cream and cakes.
than 30% of the daily diet should come from fat and out of
this percentage less than 10% should come from saturated fat
and the other should come from mono-unsaturated
and poly-unsaturated fat. High saturated fat &
trans fat intake is detrimental to health.
and minerals are classified as micro-nutrients because they
all add up to a very small percentage of the body weight.
are divided into fat soluble vitamins and water soluble
fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K.
These vitamins are called fat soluble vitamins because
they are soluble in fat solvents.
A basically has a role in vision. It also helps indirectly in
the growth of the bone, teeth and in the maintenance of
epithelia. Vitamin A can
be divided into two groups, namely, retinoids (preformed
vitamin A) and carotenoids (vitamin A precursors).
Carotenoids are antioxidants.
The RDA for vitamin A is 1000 micrograms RE and 800
micrograms RE for men and women respectively. See Appendix 1.
sources of Vitamin A
sources of retinoids are found in animal foods like whole
milk, cheese, butter and egg yolk. The sources of carotenoids
are vegetables like
pumpkin, carrots; fruits like mangoes, papayas; and green
leafy vegetables like spinach, turnips and green tops of
helps in the absorption of calcium and also phosphorous. It
helps in the mineralization of the bones. Vitamin D influences
the kidneys absorption of calcium and phosphorous. RDA is 10
micrograms for children and pregnant women.
sources are fish liver oil, tuna, salmon, fortified milk and
E can be divided into two groups, which are tocopherols and
functions of vitamin E are that it is an antioxidant and it
protects red blood cells. It inactivates free radicals.
The RDA for men is 10mg alpha-TE and 8mg alpha-TE for
sources are dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains
helps in blood clotting. It
forms prothrombin for normal blood clotting.
The RDA for men is 80 micrograms and for women 65
sources are dark green leafy vegetables and liver of chicken,
goat and sheep.
complex vitamins, niacin, folic acid, biotin, and vitamin C
are known as water soluble vitamins because they are soluble
is also known as thiamin. Its
main function is as a co-enzyme. The co-enzyme thiamin
pyrophosphate (TPP) helps in the breakdown of glucose for
energy. It helps in good digestion, improved appetite and
contributes to healthy nerves and good mental outlook. The
sources are found in whole grain, cereals, rice, milk, eggs,
sunflower seeds and peas. The RDA for thiamin is 0.5 mg per
thousand kcals for adults.
is also known as riboflavin. The main function of riboflavin
is as a co-enzyme for protein and glucose metabolism. Another
role is it helps in healthy skin and normal vision in bright
light. The sources of riboflavin are dark leafy vegetables,
meat, milk and whole grains. The RDA for riboflavin is 1.7mg
for men and 1.3 mg for women.
other name for Vitamin B6 is pyridoxine. The chief function is
that it helps in protein metabolism.
It aids to convert tryptophan to niacin. The sources of
B6 are meat, dark leafy vegetables, and whole grain cereals.
The RDA of B6 is 1.6mg for a woman and 2.0mg for men.
B12 is also known as cobalamin. It helps in the formation of
mature red cells and synthesis of DNA. The RDA is 2 micrograms
for adults. One should
note that B12 is found only in animal foods. It is found in
milk, meat, fish and eggs. However, some of the legumes
contain a little B12 in them because it is produced by the
reaction of the bacteria in the legumes.1 Of
course, one can get vitamin B12 from enriched sources like
acid is also known as
vitamin B5. The chief role of it in the body is that it helps
in the synthesis of fatty
acids and heme. The sources of B5 or pantothenic acid are
found in whole grain cereals, legumes and flesh foods. There
is no RDA for pantothenic acid, however, there is an
estimated, safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI)
which is 4-7mg for adults.
is also known as nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. The
functions of niacin are varied. It helps in the growth of
healthy skin and a healthy nervous system. It also helps in
energy metabolism. The sources of niacin are dark leafy
vegetables, whole grains, bread, cereals and fish. The RDA for
adults is 6.6 mg niacin equivalent per thousand kcals.
acid is also known as folate. The main functions are assisting
in the maturation of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA
and RNA. The sources are dark leafy vegetables, flesh foods
and whole grain cereals. The
RDA is 200 micrograms for men and 180 micrograms for women.
is known as ascorbic acid. It
helps in collagen and hormone synthesis.
It also helps in absorption of iron.
It aids in wound healing.
It acts as an antioxidant.
The sources are all citrus fruits, green leafy
vegetables and tomatoes. The
RDA is 60mg for adults.
chief function of biotin is that it is a component of
co-enzyme in energy metabolism. The main sources of biotin are
basically flesh foods and egg yolk, along with nuts and
legumes. There is no RDA for biotin; however, there is an
estimated, safe and adequate daily dietary intake which is 30
to 100 micrograms for adults.
are classified as macro-minerals and micro-minerals. How is
the classification done? One method that is used is based on
the percentage of the minerals found in the body.
Macro-minerals are greater than 0.005% of the body weight and
micro-minerals are less than 0.005% of the body weight.2
helps in maintaining permeability of cell membranes so that
materials can easily pass through and leave. Calcium is
essential for nervous activity such as heart contraction. It
strengthens the bones and teeth. The majority of calcium is
found in bones and teeth. The sources of calcium are milk,
cheese, leafy vegetables and fish. Its also found in hard
water. The RDA for calcium is 800 mg for adults over 25 years.
However, the author does not agree with the RDA for the older
women, which is still at 800 mg. He suggests
for menopausal women about 1000 to 1200 mg.
This is because they are susceptible to osteoporosis.
aids in the transportation of fat. It is part of various
compounds for metabolism and protein
synthesis. Nearly 90 % of it is found in bones
The RDA is 800 mg
for adults. The
sources of phosphorus are milk, cheese, flesh foods, whole
grains and legumes.
is involved in the transmission of nerve impulse, muscle
contraction, and assists various enzymes for energy
metabolism. The RDA for men is 350 mg and for women it is 280
mg. The sources of magnesium are milk, meat, legumes and green
is involved in acid-base and water balance. It promotes nerve
stimulation and muscle contraction.
The sources are table salt, salt fish and some
vegetables. There is no RDA for sodium but there is a minimum
requirement of 500mg.
aids in acid-base balance. The sources of sulfur are flesh
foods, legumes and nuts.
There is no RDA for sulfur. If the diet is adequate in
proteins, then sulfur is also received in adequate measures.
is involved in intra-cellular fluids and the synthesis of
protein and glycogen. The sources of potassium are fruits like
banana, fruit juices, meat and less quantities are found in
vegetables. There is no RDA for potassium. However, the
minimum requirement is 2000 mg for adults.
is a major ion of extra cellular fluid and an anion of
hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The major sources of
chloride are table salt and some vegetables. It is also
present in eggs and fish. The minimum requirement of chloride
in the body for adults is about 750 mg.
chief function of iron is in the formation of hemoglobin. It
carries oxygen to the cells. It is a cofactor of enzymes for
releasing energy. Iron
can be divided into heme iron and non heme iron. The sources
of heme iron are only from animal sources especially from the
liver of goat, sheep and chicken.
The sources of non heme iron are from animal and plant
sources. The plant sources are whole grain cereals, legumes,
green leafy vegetables and dried fruits. The RDA for adult
males is 10 mg and for women it is 15 mg.
major function of iodine is to help in the formation of
thyroxine in the thyroid for energy metabolism. The sources of
iodine are salt water fish, dairy products and iodized salt.
The RDA for adults is 150 micrograms.
helps in the growth of teeth and helps to prevent tooth decay.
The sources of fluoride are basically found in seaweed,
fluoridated water and toothpaste, which is enriched with
fluoride. There is no RDA for fluoride but the estimated safe
and adequate daily dietary intake should be about 1.5 4.0 mg
helps in the metabolism of iron.
It is involved in the formation of myelin sheaths of
nerves. The sources of copper are found mainly in the liver of
animals, shellfish, legumes and whole grain cereals. There is
no RDA for copper but the estimated safe and adequate daily
dietary intake is 1.5 3.0 mg.
function of zinc is that of helping in sexual maturation. It
helps in the tasting of food. The sources of zinc are legumes,
greens and meat. The RDA for males is 15 mg and 12 mg for
is an antioxidant. The other functions are not clear. The
sources are fish, eggs, organs like kidney, liver and whole
grains. The plants that are grown in selenium-filled soil
would contain some amounts of selenium.
RDA of selenium for adult males is 70 micrograms and for
females 55 micrograms.
is found in all cells especially in the mitochondria.
It aids in energy metabolism and cholesterol synthesis.
sources of manganese are found mainly in plant foods. Soil
concentration of manganese helps in the plants if they are
grown in it. The sources are whole grain plants, legumes,
vegetables and fruits. There is no RDA for manganese; however,
the ESADDI is 2-5 mg for adults.
exact function of chromium is not fully understood.
Chromium may be important for the maximum metabolism of
glucose. Other possible functions of chromium are in the
synthesis of cholesterol and RNA. The sources of chromium are
mainly from whole grains and meats. There is no RDA for
chromium but the estimated and safe daily dietary intake is
about 50-200 micrograms.
exact function of molybdenum is not clear, however it aids in
the action of some enzymes. The sources are grains, nuts and
beans. There is no RDA
for molybdenum but the estimated safe and adequate daily
dietary intake is about 75-200 micrograms.
energy needs of a person depend upon basal metabolic rate (BMR),
physical activity and the effect of metabolizing the food.
The US Department of Agriculture advises that the
weight of the body (in pounds) is to be multiplied by a factor
determined by the type of physical activity of the individual.
For women the factors are 14, 18, and 22, for
sedentary, moderately active and very active respectively.
For men the factors are 16, 21, and 26, for sedentary,
moderately active and very active respectively.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington in 1989, had
recommended for males (25-50 years and
light to moderate activity) 2900 kcal per day and for females
(25-50 years and doing light to moderate activity) 2200 kcal
per day. For pregnant
women (2nd and 3rd trimesters) and
lactating mothers 300 and 500 kcal should be added
recommended energy intakes for people living in different
nations vary. Hence,
people living in their own nations should follow the
recommended energy intakes of their nations.
a variety of foods in moderation is good for health. The US
Department of Agriculture has recommended eating food items
from various food groups in its Food Guide Pyramid.
The Department recommends 6 -11 servings from bread,
cereal, rice and pasta group; 3-5 servings from vegetable
group; 2-4 servings from fruit group; 2-3 servings from milk,
yogurt and cheese group; 2-3 servings from meat, poultry,
fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts group; and fats, oils and
sweets are to be used sparingly.
ancient history, there had been many nutritional fallacies.
They are found even today and will continue in future. What is
a fallacy? A fallacy is a mistaken idea or false information.
There are fallacies in every subject and nutrition is no
exception. There are many unscrupulous persons who try to
propitiate their theories or market a particular item and
cheat people. They bring
out many fallacies to produce items in the market. Some
concoct some recipes, which they claim to be panacea.
are some persons that manufacture food items and intentionally
want to cheat the people so they concoct a lot of nutritional
recipes. They are guilty of fraud. Just because someone calls
himself/herself a nutritionist and says something interesting
does not make it the gospel truth. One would have to verify
and find out if what he or she says is nutritionally correct
or incorrect. One has to find out from persons who are
educated in the matters of nutrition. As a matter of fact, one
should check out the nutritional facts with educated
nutritionists, medical professionals, registered dieticians
and health educators to make sure that the nutritional
information is true or false.
are many pills, which are sold as weight loss pills and they
may not really be for such. Some of the pills may be placebos
and nothing to do with actually helping to lose weight. There
are some individuals who sell juices or recipes of some food
items that they inform can cure cancer. Nutrition cannot cure
cancer, but it may help to prevent or reduce risk factors for
cancer. Just because somebody gives a testimony that he/she
has eaten something and have lost about 20 lbs or has been
cured of cancer doesnt mean that it is a nutritional fact.
If it is a nutritional fact, it should work on almost
every other person and not on only one or two persons who
volunteer their testimonies. There are some persons paid by
advertisers to give testimonies on television or in magazines
or newspapers just to sell the product. Therefore, one has to
find out what is a nutritional fallacy and nutritional fact.
One has to expose the fallacies and frauds when he/she gets a
chance to do so.
and Non communicable Diseases
is sickness or abnormality. Disease is a pathological process
affecting a part or the whole body and having characteristic
signs and symptoms. The cause, the treatment and prognosis can
be known or sometimes one of them may not be known. The
diseases can be divided into two groups, which are
communicable diseases and non communicable diseases.
Communicable disease is that which can be communicable or
spread from one person to another.
Where as non communicable disease is that which cannot
be spread from one person to another. Most of the communicable
diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms. The
pathogenic microorganisms are viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae,
fungi and protozoa.
communicable diseases can be transmitted through body
secretions and fluids like saliva, sputum, semen, vaginal
secretions, urine and feces. There are vectors such as
mosquitoes that can help to transmit diseases like malaria.
The non communicable diseases are like hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, coronary heart disease and hemiplegia.
Nutrition can help to boost the immunity of the body
but it can never prevent infectious diseases when the
pathogenic agent has already attacked the body.
Nutrition can help the immunity system to fight against
the microorganism, but if the microorganism invades the body,
nutrition cannot destroy or kill the microorganism. If an
infected mosquito with the protozoan plasmodium falciparum
bites a human being and when he is infected with cerebral
malaria, then nutrition cannot prevent this disease.
nutrition can help to prevent some water borne and food borne
diseases, if proper nutritional principles are followed. Water
borne diseases are like hepatitis A, cholera and typhoid. The
causative microorganisms of these above diseases can be found
in contaminated food and water. If the water is boiled then
these microorganisms will die. Therefore, when people drink
boiled water there are less chances of suffering from diseases
like hepatitis A, cholera and typhoid. The food borne diseases
are like cholera and hepatitis A.
If food is properly heated before eating, and properly
stored so that no flies and other insects can contaminate the
food, then these nutritional principles can prevent food borne
like diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease have
multi-factorial causes and faulty nutrition is just one among
them. Nutrition can help to prevent diabetes and hypertension
provided the other causes are stalled or inhibited.
If the other causes are not prevented then these
diseases can set in. However, if the other causes can be
prevented, then proper nutrition can avert those diseases.
There are some non communicable diseases for which the causes
are not known or idiopathic. In
those kinds of diseases it is very hard to forestall them. But
whenever nutrition plays a role in the causation of diseases,
they can be prevented nutritionally, provided the other causes
or risk factors are checked.
order to prevent diseases several measures have to be taken.
The various measures will be discussed step by step.
or Avoidance of Causes
first measure that should be taken is to eradicate the
causative agent or the cause. If this cannot be eradicated,
then the cause should be avoided. The study of causes of
diseases is called etiology. It
also includes all the risk factors for diseases or cancers.
The causative agent whether it is a bacterium or a
virus can be eradicated by killing through various means. For
example, if the microorganism is in the water one can kill it
by boiling the water. Discovering the causative agent for the
infectious disease is very important because it is the first
link in the chain of causation of a disease. Diseases that are
non communicable such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension do
not have a causative agent like the microorganism. Instead of
microorganism there are risk factors.
Modification of Risk
are many risk factors for non communicable diseases. The exact
cause of hypertension is not known but there are risk factors
involved. The risk factors could include smoking, eating food
with high saturated fat and salt, physical inactivity and
stress. However, there are some non-modifiable risk factors
which cannot be modified such as age, gender and genetic
factors. One cannot change ones age and genetic factors. One
cannot change the genes that were acquired from ones parents.
However, if a couple is planning to have a child they
can have genetic counseling to find out if they are carrying
any faulty gene that could cause some genetic diseases or
syndromes. As it relates to gender one cannot change gender
easily. Therefore, age, gender and genetic factors are
non-modifiable risk factors.
modifiable risk factors include diet, dietary habits, drinking
alcohol, smoking and physical inactivity. Hence, the whole
life style can be modified to prevent disease. Whenever
nutrition factors are risk factors for disease, then those
faulty nutritional factors could be modified or avoided and
prevent the disease nutritionally provided other factors do
not interplay. Therefore good nutrition can prevent
hypertension to a certain extent provided that other causes
like stress are not involved.
this book, the author will present all the causes or risk
factors or both under etiology but will discuss only
preventive nutrition in the prevention of diseases or other
Blocking the Routes of Transmission
measure to prevent disease is blocking the transmission. If
one cannot eradicate the cause or avoid the cause, the next
step is to block the transmission.
For example, mosquito is the route of transmission for
malaria, then that route should be blocked. Hence, if all the
mosquitoes have been killed by spraying pesticide or if they
have been completely avoided from entering the house through
wire meshes, and if people sleep under the nets, then route of
transmission of malaria is blocked. Some diseases like
hepatitis A and gastroenteritis can have water as their medium
for transmission. The
water can be boiled or the city water is to be purified with
chemicals to destroy the pathogenic microorganisms. And
therefore the route of transmission is interrupted and the
diseases are prevented. Other factors such as washing ones
hands, adequate cooking of food and good refrigeration can all
help to interrupt the routes of transmission.
Role of Immunity and Immunization
body has white blood cells, which forms the immune system of
the body. The white blood cells like lymphocytes can fight
against foreign pathogenic microorganisms. Sometimes, the
immunity of the body is not enough, so one needs to have
active immunity like vaccination.
there is cholera or typhoid out break the health departments
would immunize the people by administering vaccinations. It is
known as active immunization because one is
boosting the immunity of a man or
who is at risk
for a disease. However,
for non communicable diseases like coronary heart disease and
hypertension there is no vaccination that can prevent these
Role of Nutrition
there is good nutrition it can boost the immunity of the body.
A strong body may be able to fight diseases like pulmonary
proper nutrition is good for everyone in order to help to
fight certain diseases. If nutrients are deficient, then the
body is vulnerable to diseases. Once the disease like
pneumonia attacks the body then nutrition cannot prevent the
disease. Nutrition can
not prevent most of the communicable diseases.
order to prevent a disease a person should have his/her body
and mind assessed from time to time. If a person desires to
know whether he is healthy or not, or if he is going to suffer
from a disease or he is suffering the disease, his body should
be assessed through blood, urine and stool samples.
There are other measures to assess a person, that is,
like assessing the body through X- rays or ultrasound. Some
diseases are psychosomatic like peptic ulcers. Assessment of
the mind is also needed. There should be psychological
analysis for psychosomatic diseases and mental disorders.
Therefore, assessment is necessary.
There should be assessment of environmental factors
that contribute to the etiology of diseases so that they can
be rectified, if not avoided.
Nutritional Status Assessment
order for a person to know if he is suffering from any
nutritional disease or deficiency, the person should be
nutritionally assessed. To
perform nutritional assessment, there are three types of
indicators. The first
type of indicators is known as Direct Indicators. The direct
indicators are as follows:
second type of indicators is known as Indirect Indicators.
There are mortality and morbidity rates statistics. The third
type of indicators is Socio-economic Factors. The social
factors are like housing conditions, education and the number
of children. Economic factors include occupation, employment
status (employed or unemployed) and the salary for the month
or annum. All these
factors can show how they indirectly affect the nutritional
assessment is to check the blood for hemoglobin estimation,
hemotocrit and also to test for total cholesterol.
It also includes checking the blood for sugar level, in
order to find if a person is diabetic or not. Other tests
could be for estimation of various fat-soluble vitamins.
anthropometric measurements which are good to evaluate a
persons nutritional status are height, weight, skinfold
measurements at biceps, triceps and at supra iliac region. The
body mass index (BMI) is also significant.
See Appendix 2. To interpret these anthropometric
measurements one should use the standard anthropometric
measurements and percentiles of ones country or region.
clinical signs examination is shown in appendix 3. The dietary
intake methods are 24-hour recall, food frequency
questionnaire, weigh as-you-eat, food record and diet history.
The indirect indicators are morbidity and mortality rates
statistics of the assessed persons country. These statistics
will show the health and nutritional status of the people
living in that country. The socio-economic indicators are
educational status, family size, occupation, employment or
unemployment, housing conditions and the availability of
medical care services. Climatic
conditions play a role in availability of food also.
These factors will play a significant role indirectly
on the nutritional status of a person.
to prevent diseases the nutritional status of a person should
Levels of Prevention
are several levels of prevention of diseases. They will be
discussed one by one.
first level of prevention is known as primary prevention. It
is a measure or measures taken to prevent the disease before
its onset. Primordial prevention is really a refined primary
prevention. This prevention can be followed by good lifestyle.
The W.H.O has recommended some procedures to achieve primary
prevention for chronic diseases where risk factors are known.
They are primordial prevention, population strategy and
order to prevent hypertension one should start the prevention
from childhood itself. The risk factors for hypertension
should be avoided from early age, for e.g. smoking, alcoholism
and eating a diet with high saturated fat and cholesterol
should be avoided.
prevention can be followed by anyone and by communities or
prevention is trying to stop the progression of the disease at
its early stage. The goal here is to check the disease so that
it will not run its full course after it has set in. So this
can be done by early diagnosis of the disease and medical
there are epidemics, epidemiologists should be called to find
out the distribution and the determinants of the epidemics.
They will use the principles of epidemiology to prevent
epidemics or diseases. There
should be enough financial support for programs to conduct
goal of this level of prevention is to see that the disease
does not have recurrence in the host or does not lead to
disabilities in the patient. For e.g. a patient, who survived
myocardial infarction, should not experience recurrence or
should not suffer from a disability like hemiplegia or stroke.
The recurrence can be avoided by constant health monitoring
and avoiding risk factors. If there are disabilities they can
be mitigated through rehabilitation.
Significance of Health and Nutritional Education
and nutritional education should start at birth and end at
death. A person should be inculcated health and nutrition
principles from childhood. All should be taught what are the
causes and symptoms of various diseases and cancers. All
should be taught from childhood good dietary habits and what
constitutes good nutrition. They should be taught the
nutritional risk factors of various diseases. The Holy Bible
says in Proverbs 22:6, Train up the child in the way which he
should go, and when he is old he shall not depart from it.
This principle should be practiced and not only taught.
colleges and universities should have health and nutrition in
their curricula. Communities must receive health and nutrition
education through various methods like house visiting,
posters, radio, television, plays and seminars.
Two-way communication method like home visiting by
health workers or nutritionists is ideal.
good lifestyles of older individuals can be a health education
for the younger ones. The significance of exercise should be
demonstrated in peoples lives. The evil and harmful effects of
alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction should be inculcated
from childhood. These evil habits, which are detrimental and
lethal to ones health, should be completely avoided.
health and nutrition education has a significant role in
preventing diseases and cancers.
Role of Nutrition in Prevention or Reduction of Risk Factors
for Certain Diseases and Cancers
and Diseases of the
is the decaying of the teeth. It is a dental disease. The
author had decided to place caries under digestive system
because teeth are used for chewing the food.
is caused because of poor dental hygiene. When the teeth are
not brushed after every meal and flossed every morning and
evening, then plaque would be deposited slowly on the teeth.
Due to the plaque bacteria would accumulate and attack
the teeth. This could cause caries. Children who eat highly
refined foods like sweets, ice cream and chocolate (these food
items would be stuck between the teeth and will not be easily
removed by brushing), would be vulnerable for caries.
order to prevent dental caries, children should be taught not
to always eat foods like ice cream, chocolate, sweets and
cakes. However, this doesnt mean that they should not eat ice
cream, chocolates and cakes, but they should not eat too much
and too often. Another advice is that when children eat this
highly refined food, they should immediately brush and floss
the teeth. If this is not done, then bacteria will multiply on
the accumulated food particles between the teeth and the gums
and attack the teeth. As a rule everybody should follow proper
oral hygiene or else it may cause other problem like halitosis
is either incomplete or no evacuation of the feces by the
most common causes of constipation are very low dietary fiber,
poor bowel habits, some abnormalities like hemorrhoids,
systemic diseases like hypothyroidism, neurological problems
like Parkinsons syndrome, multiple sclerosis, hemiplegia and
some medications like narcotics and antacids.
order to prevent constipation nutritionally a person should
ingest plenty of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is divided in to
insoluble dietary fiber
soluble dietary fiber.
insoluble dietary fibers are cellulose and hemicellulose, on
the other hand, water-soluble dietary fiber are gums, pectins
and mucilages. These soluble and insoluble fibers increase
peristalsis of the bowel so that constipation is avoided
unless there are some structural abnormalities. The rich food
sources of water insoluble fibers are whole wheat, wheat bran,
nuts and vegetables especially leafy vegetables. The rich
sources of water-soluble fiber are apples, citrus fruits like
oranges and grapes, oat bran, oatmeal and legumes. The other
advice is to drink lot of water, do exercise and follow
regular bowel habits.
Cirrhosis of the liver (alcoholic)
is a deteriorating and degenerative change in the liver, which
is caused because of over ingestion of alcohol. This could
lead to death of the patient.
already mentioned, it is due to alcohol.
author advises people not to drink alcohol at all. He does not
support moderate drinking of alcohol, since moderate drinking
would lead to addiction of alcohol. A Chinese proverb states,
First the man takes a drink, then the drink takes
another drink, finally the drink takes the man.
The Bible also condemns the drinking of alcohol in all
its forms. And those who are trying to give up alcoholism can
read the authors book Dr. Stevensons Solutions to A to Z
Problems in Life. This book will help one to give up
is a passage of stools, which are either liquid or semi-solid,
more frequently. Along with the diarrhea there might be
abdominal pains, cramps and malaise.
causes of acute diarrhea are indigestion, invasion of
pathogenic microorganisms like E.coli, anxiety and food
poisoning. Other problems that can cause diarrhea are
intestinal cancer, radiation therapy, AIDS, stress, laxative
abuse and also malabsorbtion diseases.
can prevent diarrhea only if faulty nutrition is the cause of
diarrhea. However, if there are some other causes like
protozoa, AIDS and cancer, then nutrition cannot prevent
diarrhea. When there is a nutritional factor that causes
diarrhea, then that factor should be corrected. For example,
if over eating is the cause then it should be avoided. If food
poisoning is the cause, then that should be avoided.
For prevention of food poisoning, please check that
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis
is formation of sacs in the intestinal wall, especially that
of the colon. These sacs are known as diverticula.
Diverticulitis is the inflammation of the diverticula, which
are sacs or pouches. Diveticulitis is usually found in older
causes of diverticulosis could be old age and eating food that
has no or little fiber.
Since the diet has no fiber there is pressure on the lining of
the intestine and this pressure can cause formation of sacs
and pouches. These pouches or diverticula are inflammed again
due to no or little fiber in the diet and infections.
order to prevent diverticulosis and diverticulitis, a diet,
which is high in fiber, should be taken. The
sources that are rich in dietary fiber are whole wheat,
wheat bran, nuts, dark leafy vegetables, citrus fruits,
oatmeal, oat bran, barley and also legumes.
is indigestion. There could be host of abdominal symptoms like
pain, discomfort, regurgitation and flatulence.
are many causes of dyspepsia. They include over eating, fatty
food, drug intolerance (aspirin,
antibiotics) gastro-intestinal infections, dysfunctions like
gastroesophageal reflux, stomach cancer, biliary tract
disease, diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism.
prevent dyspepsia, one should not eat too much. One should not
eat too much of fatty food. Diabetes mellitus and
hypothyroidism must be controlled.
is belching. It is expulsion of gas with sound from the
stomach through the mouth.
of air (areophagia)
(It will induce areophagia)
are several ways to prevent eructation, which are as follows:
not drink carbonated drinks if you are suffering from chronic
belching; instead drink natural fruit juices which are not
not use straw while drinking any liquid.
not chew bubble gum if you are suffering from chronic
not eat food rapidly.
not smoke (smoking is not a part of diet but the author
advises every person not to smoke).
dentures should be corrected.
is formation of gas in the digestive system especially in the
bowel. A flatus is a gas that is expelled from the bowel.
Flatus, colloquially, is known as a fart. To produce a little
amount of gas is normal.
could be caused from swallowed air and bacterial fermentation
of undigested food. The majority of air that is not belched
would pass through the intestine as gas. When there is
bacterial fermentation of undigested food, it would produce
hydrogen and also methane. Most of the gas production takes
place in the colon. Gas produced from undigested plant food
sources usually have relatively little smell. However, gas
from flesh foods and foods high in proteins like eggs
tend to smell bad.
causes of gas production are poor and irregular bowel habits,
over eating, eating high fatty and protein food, poor
absorption of lactose and diseases like celiac sprue.
not eat too much food at one time. The next point is do not
eat too much food, which is high in protein, especially eggs
and red peas. In order to avoid gas formation or flatulence,
there are foods, which one should not eat in plenty.
They are eggs, cauliflower, cabbage, onions, beans, red
peas, alcohol, beer, and also carbonated beverages. To prevent
too much gas production, activated charcoal, which can absorb
the gas, can be used. Another advice is to have regular
elimination of the feces.
fluorosis is mottling or
the discoloration of the teeth. The discolorization might
eventually turn into brown or black color. The mottling of the
teeth is usually seen in the incisors of the upper jaw of the
main cause of dental fluorosis is drinking water that contains
excessive amount of fluorine in it. In some places in
, there is water which contains excessive amount of fluorine.
It may contain about 3-5 mg of fluorine per liter.
of the goals of
prevention is not to drink water that has high content of
fluoride. Usually running water has less quantity of fluoride
than ground water supply like wells. If people living in
endemic areas for dental
treated to de-fluoride the water. Usually to de-fluoride the
water one has to use lime and alum in sequences followed by
sedimentation and filtration.4 And people living in
areas where there is high content of fluoride in the water,
should not use fluoride toothpaste, since it would actually
compound the problem.
are calculi formation in the biliary duct. It is known as
can cause biliary colic. Bile
juice is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
formation could be because of super saturation of the bile
with cholesterol. Fatty food can be a predisposing factor.
Usually persons with four Fs are susceptible to gall stones.
The four Fs are female, fat, fair and forty years and
gallstones are due to supersaturation of bile with
cholesterol, and fatty food is a risk, eating diet that is
high in cholesterol and fat should be avoided.
The foods like cheese, butter, eggs, fried foods
and organ meats should not be eaten often and in large
amounts. Cholesterol is
only found in animal foods. So
it good to eat more vegetables and fruits and less flesh foods
and dairy products. Obesity
should be prevented since fat persons are vulnerable for
gallstones. Persons, who
are over 40, should be careful in not eating fatty foods.
Nutritional education regarding the causes and
prevention of gallstones will help individuals and general
is the inflammation of gingiva.
Gingiva is other name for gums. It could also mean
connective tissue that surrounds the neck of the teeth.
impactation. This is
where food is stuck between the teeth and the gums; and
between the teeth.
gums could be swollen during puberty, menstruation and
pregnancy because of hormonal changes in some females.
systemic diseases. Gingivitis could be an early sign of
systemic diseases like primary herpes simplex, diabetes
mellitus, leukopenia and AIDS.5
C should be taken in plenty through diet.
Adults should take about 60 mg of vitamin C per day.
Children between ages of 7 to 10 should take about 45
mg per day. There should
be good oral hygiene. Systemic
diseases that cause gingivitis should be prevented.
common term, hemorrhoids are known as piles. Hemorrhoids are
dilated veins in the rectum. Hemorrhoids
could be either external or internal. There could be pain
during defecation and bleeding can occur also.
are several factors that could cause hemorrhoids.
Some of the factors are as follows:
with low fiber.
very little water.
poor and irregular bowel habits.
tumors and cancer in the rectum.
best way to prevent hemorrhoids is to have a diet, which has
high fiber in it. Foods like wheat, wheat bran, oatmeal, oat
bran, barley, and legumes like beans and peas could be good
because all of them have high content of
fiber and this could help the stool to be bulkier.
Another way to prevent hemorrhoids nutritionally is to drink a
lot of water. When lot of water is taken, the stool becomes
softer and when less water is taken, the stool becomes harder
nutritional principle is to have regular bowel elimination.
Persons should not strain while defecating.
One should not eat too much of high fatty food items
fried in oil and butter like fried chicken and fried eggs or
omelets since these can make the stool harder and pass through
the gut slowly. This could cause constipation and in turn it
could cause straining during defecation.
People who are over 40 should have digital examination
of the rectum to rule out if there are any tumors.
hernia is a protrusion or a prolapse of a part of the stomach
through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
Hernia is caused by weakened muscles near the opening of the
diaphragm which allows the esophagus to enter the stomach.
People who are obese and who are over 45 years of age
already shown, obese people are prone to hiatus hernia. It is
good for one not to become obese. It is good to maintain the
right weight for height. One
should not eat high fatty foods on a daily basis lest they
become obese and in turn become vulnerable to hiatus hernia.
Persons who are 45 years should not do vigorous
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
bowel syndrome is a condition where there is irregular bowel
motility. There could be abdominal pain, diarrhea or
constipation, distention, bloating, dyspepsia and headache.
This is a chronic relapsing syndrome.
exact cause of this syndrome is idiopathic.
However, there are factors linked to this syndrome
which are as follows:6
and emotional upsets
foods can trigger the syndrome in few persons.
should not drink coffee because it contains caffeine, which is
not good for health. Ellen G White in her book Temperance has
stated in page 80, Tea
and coffee drinking isinjurious indulgence.
One should not eat food items that contain caffeine.
There should be no laxative abuse.
One should drink a lot of water and have regular bowel
is the inflammation of the pancreas. There could be undigested
fat, protein and starch present in the stools of the patients.
If this is not corrected, it would lead to
abuse is the most common cause of acute
and chronic pancreatitis. The other reasons are biliary
disorders for acute pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis and
malnutrition for chronic pancreatitis.7
prevent acute and chronic pancreatitis, one should completely
avoid alcohol. Moderate
drinking of alcohol is not advised since it leads to
addiction. One should not suffer from undernourishment.
ulcer is erosion of gastrointestinal lining.
of gastric juice
whenever there is stress there could be hyper secretion of
steroid anti inflammatory drugs, chronic H pylori infection
and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome8
smoking could increase the risk of developing peptic ulcers.
and fatty food
order to prevent peptic ulcers nutritionally, one should not
eat diet high in spices and fat.
Spicy food can irritate the stomach lining.
One should eat at regular times, which should be
followed always. When food is not eaten at regular times, the
gastric juice would be released and act on the stomach wall
because it is made of protein. This
in turn on the long run can cause an ulcer on the wall of the
is a vitamin C deficiency condition where there are symptoms
like bleeding and swelling of the gums. The patient could also
suffer from fatigue or tiredness.
cause of scurvy is vitamin C deficiency.
diet that is rich in vitamin C should be eaten daily.
The rich food sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits
like grapes and oranges, strawberries, tomatoes and raw green
are contents that are ejected from the stomach through the
mouth. These contents that are ejected are known as vomitus.
Vomiting is known as emesis.
are many causes of vomiting or emesis which include:
obstructions malignancy of the esophagus or stomach
like diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis,
and peptic ulcers (hematemesis (vomiting of blood) in
borne and food borne diseases like cholera, typhoid and
prevention is to avoid food poisoning.
Food items that are not stored and preserved properly
should not be ingested because it may lead to vomiting and
disease like botulism. Drinking water should be purified by
boiling or by chemicals to prevent all water borne diseases.
Food should be properly heated and cooked to kill the
microorganisms that cause food borne diseases.
Food handlers should always practise good personal
hygiene like washing hands properly before handling food.
One should not eat too much food at one time.
One should not drink alcohol. The smell of ginger or
lime fruit can prevent vomiting in some persons.
Water borne and food borne diseases
borne and food borne diseases can be divided according to the
microorganisms and helminths that cause the diseases.
diseases -- cholera and typhoid
disease Weils disease
diseases amoebiasis, giardiasis
diseases hepatitis A and poliomyelitis
infestations -- hookworm, roundworm and tapeworm infestations.
mentioned diseases are classified as water borne and food
borne diseases because they are transmitted to other persons
through contaminated water
causes of these water borne and food borne diseases are as
-- Salmonella typhi
disease -- Leptospira ictero-hemorrhagiae
-- Entamoeba histolytica
-- Giardia lamblia
A -- Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
water borne diseases are notifiable diseases.
They should be notified to the health authorities lest
epidemics like cholera and typhoid might break out.
The water could be contaminated because of improper
sanitation. When toilets are not kept clean, diseases like
hepatitis A and amoebiasis can spread.
They can be spread through fecal-oral route. When
drinking water is not purified, it could assist to transmit
water borne diseases. When
food is contaminated through flies and insects, then that food
can abet to transmit food borne diseases.
When food handlers are not practicing proper hygiene,
then food borne diseases can be spread.
If vegetables like cabbage, lettuce, and carrots are
watered with sewage and other dirty water, they could harbor
the ova and larvae of the helminths like roundworms and
hookworms. When these
vegetables are eaten raw, they can abet to transmit helminth
first goal of preventing water borne diseases is to drink pure
water. Drinking water
can be purified either by boiling or by some chemicals.
As rule, whether you are travelling, working, visiting
or staying at home always drink purified water.
Drinking water from filters is not safe because the
viruses can pass through the pores of the candles of a filter.
But boiling the water will kill all the microorganisms.
Hence, boiling is the best method to purify water.
bathrooms and toilets should be disinfected and cleaned or
else diseases like hepatitis A and amoebiasis could be spread.
Vegetables like cabbage, lettuce and carrots that are
grown in a dirty and filthy environment where there is leakage
of sewage water could be contaminated with ova and larvae of
roundworms and hookworms. When
these vegetables are eaten raw, they could abet
to transmit helminth infestations.
Hence, these vegetables should be boiled in order to
kill the ova and larvae of the helminths.
However, if vegetables are grown in ones backyard and
they are not contaminated, then they can be eaten raw.
One should not eat pork because pigs can harbor
tapeworms. Food should
be properly cooked, stored and preserved in order to prevent
food borne diseases. Children
should be taught not to eat food items that are contaminated
and Diseases of the Cardiovascular System
is a condition where there is deficiency in either the quality
or quantity of red blood cells.
anemias can be divided as follows:
acid deficiency anemia
deficiency anemia is a
condition where there is a deficiency of B12. B12
is also known as cobalamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency
patient will have macrocytic red blood cells.
who are strict vegetarians or vegans since B12 is
only found in animal foods.
vegan mothers breastfeed their infants, then the infants can
be B12 deficient.
of the digestive system
and diseases of the liver and kidney can increase the
requirement of B12 and thus in turn cause B12
order to prevent B12 deficiency, a diet rich in B12
should be ingested. The
food sources of B12 are only found in animal
sources. However, as
already mentioned in chapter one, legumes contain some amount
of this vitamin because of the action of bacteria. Animal
foods like meat, organ meats, chicken, fish, eggs and milk are
good sources of B12. The recommended dietary
allowance of B12 for adults is 2.0 micrograms per
day. The authors advice for strict vegetarians or vegans is to
ingest soy milk enriched with B12 or take B12
person who has stopped eating flesh foods when he was over 20
years may not need B12 for a few years because he
has enough stores of it. Alcoholics
should stop drinking alcohol. Persons
who are infested with helminths should be dewormed since the
parasites would be competing with the host for B12.
Acid Deficiency Anemia
is an anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
The patient will have macrocytic red blood cells.
deficiency of folic acid.
and celiac sprue.
(during pregnancy there could be increased demand for folic
drugs like phenytoin and sulfasalazine
will put the patient at risk for folic acid deficiency.
should be sufficient intake of foods which
are rich in folic acid or folate. The foods that are
rich in folic acid are all dark green leafy vegetables,
fruits, legumes, whole grain cereals, chicken and eggs.
The recommended dietary allowance for adults is 180-200
micrograms per day. During pregnancy, women should increase
their intake of folic acid especially during the first two
trimesters. The RDA
during pregnancy is 400 micrograms per day and if she is
lactating, during the first six months it is 280 micrograms
and during the second six months of lactation it is 260
micrograms per day.
anemia is due to iron deficiency.
The patient will have hypochromic and microcytic red
of iron in the diet
of iron in the body
and lactation (there would be increased demand of iron during
these physiological changes)
loss through peptic ulcers and menstruation (menorrhagia-heavy
infestation (roundworm, hookworm and tapeworm)
of copious blood can put at risk for iron deficiency
foremost goal to prevent iron deficiency anemia is to ingest
sufficient amount of iron through diet.
There are two types of iron which are heme and
non-heme. The heme iron
is part of the hemoglobin and the myoglobin molecules, which
are present in animal foods only.
Non-heme iron is present in animal and plant foods.
In the animal foods about 40% is heme and 60% is
non-heme. The iron
present in plant foods is 100% non-heme.
Usually about 23% of heme is available for absorption
whereas only 2-20% of non-heme is available for absorption.10
sources of heme iron are liver of chicken, goat, sheep; eggs
and meats. The animal
sources of non-heme iron are meat,
poulty and fish and the plant sources
of non- heme are whole and
fortified grains, nuts, legumes, dried fruits like
raisins and all dark green leafy vegetables.
The RDA of iron
for male adults is 10 mg per day while for females it is 15 mg
per day and for pregnant women is 30 mg per day. Women who are
having heavy menstrual bleeding must take iron supplements
and increase their
dietary iron intake, in order to make up the loss of iron
through the menstrual blood. Patients
who are suffering from helminth infestation should be
dewormed. Persons who
have donated blood should take iron supplements. Patients with
peptic ulcers should
also take iron supplements.
anemia is a condition where there is non absorption of vitamin
B12 because of the lack of
intrinsic factor which is normally found in the
digestive system. Pernicious anemia could be fatal.
The patients of pernicious anemia
are found in different parts of the world but they are
predominantly found in the Scandinavian countries.
who lack the intrinsic factor would suffer from pernicious
anemia. The intrinsic
factor helps to absorb vitamin B12 which is
order to prevent pernicious anemia, the person who lacks
intrinsic factor should be administered with intra-muscular
injections of 100 micrograms of B12 in each dose.
This dose is given daily for the first week then it is
given weekly during the first month and after that it should
be given monthly for life.11 B12 is not
given orally because the oral tablets will not be absorbed
because of the lack of intrinsic factor.
pectoris is a condition where there is chest pain due to
insufficient blood supply to the heart.
of the coronary artery
of the coronary artery
much physical exertion in some persons
bouts of anger, stress and depression can trigger angina
nutritional prevention is basically to avoid atherosclerosis
(hardening and narrowing of the arteries). Atherosclerosis is
caused because of high fatty food especially which is loaded
with cholesterol, which
in turn can add plaque on the walls of the arteries and narrow
the lumen. How to
prevent atherosclerosis please check under the nutritional
prevention of atherosclerosis.
is a condition where there are fatty material and plaque,
which are deposited on the walls of the arteries which leads
to the hardening and narrowing of their lumen.
fatty food especially which is loaded with cholesterol &
trans fat would cause fatty deposits and plaque to accumulate
on the walls of arteries. Lipoproteins
are forms in which fats are transported in the blood.
There are different types of lipoproteins in the blood.
The HDL (high density lipoproteins) is good cholesterol
whereas LDL (low density lipoproteins) is bad cholesterol.
VLDL is very low density lipoproteins which is also
bad. The author
conducted a research study on 419 patients and their
cholesterol levels. It
was found that 68% suffered from elevated cholesterol.12 See
figure 1 in appendix 5.
Elevated triglycerides would
be risk factor for atherosclerosis.
The author conducted a study on 211 patients, and it
was found that 59.7% suffered from elevated triglyceride
levels. See figure 2 in
nutritional prevention is not to eat diet, which is high in
fat especially with cholesterol and saturated & trans fat.
Foods that should not be eaten too much are egg yolk, chicken
with skin, liver, kidney, shrimps, whole milk, ice cream,
cheese and butter.
should take less than 100 mg of cholesterol per thousand
kilocalories and saturated fat intake should be less than 10%
per day. They should also take diet which is high in fiber
especially water soluble fiber which are like gums, pectins
and mucilages. These fibers can inhibit the absorption of
cholesterol by binding with it. The food which is high in
water soluble dietary fiber are oat, oat bran, fruits like
citrus fruits and vegetables.
amount of fat per day should be about 30%.
Less than 10% should be from saturated fat and the
other amount should come from monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fat. The
oils which have high content of polyunsaturated fat are
sunflower and safflower oils. Coconut oil has nearly 92% of
saturated fat. Therefore
coconut oil should be completely avoided in the diet.
Garlic can lower cholesterol levels.
Antioxidants like vitamins C and E and beta-carotene
can aid to lower LDL. Niacin can also lower cholesterol
levels. One should avoid
drinking alcohol since it puts a person at risk for
should be prevented because it is another risk for
is very important to burn out the extra calories.
People should exercise from childhood to death provided
their health conditions permit. One should follow what the
Bible says in Deuteronomy 8:3, which states, Man shall not
live by bread alone but by every word that proceedeth from the
mouth of the Lord. If
one follows this principle, one will eat to live and not live
to eat. 1st Corinthians 6:19 says What? Know ye not
that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.
Since the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit, one
should not defile it by drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette or
eating faulty diet which
is high in cholesterol.
is the state of weariness or tiredness. There could be mental
disinclination or extreme exhaustion following physical
activity or mental effort.
are many causes of fatigue which include the following
Overwork or over exertion
Lack of physical activity
Some of the diseases that can cause fatigue are:
Infections like hepatitis A and B
Respiratory diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis and flu
Drug side effects
is a syndrome known as chronic fatigue syndrome. In this case
the fatigue would last for more than six months along with
symptoms like low-grade fever and swelling of lymph nodes for
which the exact cause is not known.
nutritional prevention is to preclude nutritional anemias. The
nutritional anemias, that are B12 deficiency
anemia, folic acid deficiency anemia, iron deficiency anemia
and pernicious anemia, should be prevented.
How to prevent them are discussed under the topic
anemias. The next nutritional prevention is to prevent
obesity, underweight, and nutritional deficiencies.
How to prevent them are discussed under the respective
is bleeding. It is the
escape of blood from the blood vessels either internally or
externally due to some abnormalities.
could be many factors that can cause hemorrhage. These
of the liver
K deficiency for prolonged time
the peptic ulcers have been caused due to nutritional reasons
like not eating on time and eating high spicy food, then those
reasons should be prevented. If
hemorrhoids have been caused due to diet that is high in fat
and less in fiber, then the diet which is high in fiber and
very less in fat should be consumed.
It is good to prevent peptic ulcers and hemorrhoids
nutritionally. If a
woman is suffering from menorrhagia (heavy bleeding) then she
should take iron supplements daily and eat diet rich in iron.
The persons suffering from bleeding problems should take diet
which is rich in vitamin K because this vitamin helps in
clotting of the blood. Foods
rich in vitamin K are dark green leafy vegetables like
spinach, turnip, lettuce, broccoli and cabbage.
is high blood pressure that persists.
But there are controversies as to what really
constitutes high blood
pressure. However, it is commonly agreed that when a persons
systolic pressure is equal or higher than 140mm\Hg and the
diastolic pressure is equal or higher than 90mm\Hg then that
person is said to be hypertensive. Of course, there are
different types of hypertension like essential hypertension,
secondary hypertension and malignant hypertension.
exact cause of hypertension is idiopathic.
However, there are some risk factors, which are as
fatty food intake especially with high cholesterol --- A study
conducted by the author revealed that 40% of 286 patients with
elevated cholesterol suffered from hypertension.13 See
figure 3 in appendix 5.
problems like stress, depression, fear and
nutritional prevention is to eat a balanced diet.
The diet should
not contain more than 2 grams of salt per 2000 kilocalories.
High fatty food which contains a lot of cholesterol and
saturated fat should not be ingested.
Fat content should not be more than 30%
and saturated fat should be less than 10% and the
remaining of the 30% should come from monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fats. Cholesterol
intake should not be more than 100 mg per thousand kilocals
per day. In addition
people should do a lot of exercise to burn extra calories.
For more information
on how to prevent hypertension, please read the authors book,
Solutions to A to Z Problems in Life.
infarction is a necrosis of the myocardium due to the abrupt
reduction of coronary blood flow to
the heart. In lay
mans term myocardial infarction is known as heart attack. The
symptoms of myocardial infraction or heart attack varies from
person to person. However,
the usual symptoms are pain or tightness in the chest
especially near the substernal region which could radiate to
the back, neck, jaw and left arm.
There could be shortness of breath or dyspnea and
sweating. Other symptoms
like nausea, vomiting and fear of the approaching doom could
be present. Some
patients might go to the toilet to urinate or defecate.
exact cause of myocardial infarction is abrupt reduction of
blood to the myocardium. There
are reasons why there
could be a sudden reduction
of blood flow through the coronary artery
to the heart. Those reasons are due to risk factors
which are as follows:
emotional problems like phobia, stress and depression
effects of drug addiction
nutritional prevention is to avoid high cholesterol intake
through food. The foods which are high in cholesterol are
butter, cheese, egg yolk, organ meats, shrimps, crabs, oysters
and whole milk. For more
information, on how to prevent the intake of cholesterol,
please check nutritional prevention of atherosclerosis.
The other nutritional preventive measures are to
preclude obesity, prohibit alcoholism, take less salt (2 grams
of salt per 2000 kilocals), prevent diabetes mellitus and
hypertension and do plenty of exercises.
and Diseases of the Endocrine System
mellitus is a disease where there is hyperglycemia from either
no or little production of insulin or insulin non-action.
There are different types of diabetes mellitus. These
include insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus is type 1 and non insulin dependent diabetes
mellitus is type 2. Initially
as a person become diabetic, there may not be symptoms but
later there could be symptoms of excessive thirst, excessive
hunger, excessive urination and fatigue.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death
in Western countries.
under lying cause of diabetes mellitus is
insulin deficiency which is absolute in IDDM patients
and partial in NIDDM patients. There could be several reasons
as to why insulin is
deficient. The reasons are as follows:
of the islets of langerhans
in the formation of insulin
of beta cells
or chemical agents
of the genes controlling insulin.
are several risk factors that can make a person vulnerable for
diabetes mellitus which are as follows:
carbohydrate and fatty diet
intake (1g of alcohol gives 7 kilocalories or
1ml gives 5.6 kilocalories)
infections like viral rubella
Some socio-economic factors like occupation and
educational status can inter play.
order to prevent diabetes mellitus nutritionally, one should
not eat a diet that is high in carbohydrate and fat.
Simply put, it means not to take excessive calories
than your body needs. One
gram of carbohydrates gives 4 calories whereas 1gram of fat
gives nine calories. Foods
that should not be eaten in plenty are butter, cheese, egg
yolk and highly refined foods like cakes, sweets and ice
creams. The recommended
energy requirements should be according to ones age, sex, work
and exercise. Obesity
should be prevented. There
should be no physical inactivity but rather an individual
should be involved in exercise to burn out extra calories.
One should not eat too much at any time.
One should completely avoid drinking alcohol.
is a condition where there is a deficiency of thyroid
functions in the body. Patients
of hypothyroidism have the following symptoms:
on weight in spite of eating less
females may suffer from menorrhagia
may be due to the primary disease of the gland itself
may be due to lack of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone.
deficiency in the diet
drugs---methinazole and sulfanomides
foods like cabbage, cauliflower, turnips and lettuce, if eaten
in plenty for a long period of time.
first preventive measure is to take enough iodine in the diet
or else it may lead to goiter. Goiter
is the swelling of the thyroid gland which is located in front
of the neck. The RDA of iodine for adults is 150 micrograms.
The rich sources of iodine are found in seafood, for example,
shellfish, seaweed and salt fish. Plants that are grown along
the seacoast also contain iodine.
Another good source of iodine is iodized table salt.
second preventive measure is to avoid eating too much of
goitrogenic food. The
foods that are goitrogenic are cabbage, cauliflower, turnips
and lettuce. If these
vegetables are eaten everyday in large quantities, they can
increase the risk for goiter. Hence,
one can eat them in little quantities but not in large
quantities over a long period of time.
can be divided into two types, namely, primary amenorrhea and
secondary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is a condition where
the female has never menstruated in spite of passing the
normal puberty age. Secondary amenorrhea is a condition where
the female had menstruated but later the menstruation stopped
because of some reasons.
author will discuss the causes of both primary and secondary
could be caused because of the following reasons:
abnormalities like imperforate hymen
dysfunctions like hypopituitarism
defects like Turners Syndrome
can be in a way caused by eating very little
food or undernourishment.
Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa can contribute
to either primary or secondary amenorrhea.
How to prevent anorexia nervosa is discussed under the
topic anorexia nervosa. All
females of the reproductive age must eat balanced diet and
should not be undernourished.
is a condition where there is skipping of monthly periods
and\or scanty bleeding.
of the ovaries
glands and ovary gland disturbances
intake of food resulting in under nutrition
females of reproductive age must eat balanced diet in order to
prevent under nutrition. Females
should not do very vigorous and excessive exercises for a long
period of time since excessive exercise contributes to
oligomenorrhea. Professional sports women and female athletes
do suffer from oligomenorrhea.
menopause is cessation of menstruation before the normal time
(which is 45 to 50 years). Premature menopause usually takes
place before the age of 40 years.
main cause why women have premature menopause before they
reach age forty is not really known.
However, there are some associations with premature menopause.
These associations are as follows:
who live in high altitude areas
nutritional prevention for premature menopause is that women
should eat balanced diet in order to avoid a poor nutritional
status. Women should
maintain good eating habits and should not be underweight or
emaciated. Women should
not drink alcohol. Though
smoking is not part of nutrition, the author advises not only
women, but also everyone not to smoke.
Premature menopause is not good because women can
suffer from osteoporosis and hot flushes at an earlier age.
syndrome is a condition where there is severe prolonged
increase in glomerular permeability in the kidneys
for albumins. Basically this syndrome causes
albuminuria (presence of albumins in urine).
syndrome is a phase of progression of some diseases like the
secondary causes of this syndrome are hepatitis B, cancers and
diabetes mellitus and
hypertension could lead to this syndrome, one should avoid
being diabetic and hypertensive.
One should also have regular check ups especially after
age 40 to detect any cancers of the urinary tract or digestive
Chronic Renal Failure
renal failure is a gradual loss of kidney function.
There would be no urinary output eventually.
urinary failure has several secondary causes, which are as
atherosclerosis of the urinary arteries
chronic renal failure is due to secondary causes like diabetes
and atherosclerosis, it is good to prevent those diseases.
How to prevent those diseases were already discussed.
calculi is the formation of stones in the urinary system. The
urinary calculi or stones can be found in the kidneys,
ureters, bladder and urethra. When
small stones pass
through the ureters or urethra there may not be much pain.
However, when large stones try to pass through the
ureters and urethra there could be severe pain
due to the blockage. There
could be chills, fever, nausea, vomiting along with severe
of calcium oxalates
of uric acid and cystine
intake of vitamin D
intake of calcium
little intake of drinking water
nutritional prevention is not to take excessive calcium and
vitamin D in the diet and through supplements. Fish liver oil
should not be ingested in plenty.
For RDAs of calcium and vitamin D, check chapter 1
under the respective nutrients or see appendix 1. Patients who
suffer from urinary calculi should not eat cabbage, tomatoes
and tamarind because they contain oxalates.
They should drink plenty of water to inhibit the
formation of calculi.
bulimia is an eating disorder where there are episodes of
binge eating and purging. The
patients throw up later because they feel guilty and also they
do not want to put on weight.
the cause of this eating disorder is psychological.
It is also due to poor nutritional knowledge.
The psychological reasons are:
principles should be taught from childhood. The
patients of this eating disorder must be treated by
psychotherapy, the importance of nutritional education must
also be emphasized. The
nutritional principle like eating adequate amounts at regular
intervals should be inculcated.
There should be no overeating and purging since they
have adverse effects on the gastrointestinal system. They
should maintain normal weight for their height.
nervosa is an eating disorder where the patients have morbid
fear of obesity and suffer from loss of appetite. The
anorexics do not want to put on weight and would starve
themselves. If they are
forced to eat, they would vomit after eating when nobody is
would wear baggy or layered clothing and avoid food-related
causes of anorexia nervosa are basically psychological. The
anorexics try to be perfectionists.
Another cause is the patients want to punish their
parents for their strict upbringing, but ironically, they are
punishing themselves. The
morbid fear of putting on weight is another reason.
The anorexics have poor nutritional knowledge.
principles should be taught from childhood. During
psychotherapy, they should be inculcated the importance of
good nutrition principles. It
is not easy to treat these patients. The patients should know
that normal weight should be maintained or else they could be
emaciated and eventually be vulnerable to all kinds of
diseases, which could lead to death.
They should be shown that they are not punishing their
parents but punishing themselves unduly.
For more information about anorexia nervosa, you can
read the authors book,
Dr. Stevensons Solutions to A to Z
Problems in Life.
is progressive deterioration of the mental functions, which
are irreversible. The
mental functions that are affected are memory, judgement,
personality and emotional control.
has so many causes, which are as follows:
and folic acid deficiencies
nutritional prevention for dementia is to preclude the
nutritional anemias, hyperglycemia
and hypothyroidism. The
nutritional prevention of these conditions has already been
discussed. Pellagra is
caused because of niacin deficiency. Hence, niacin should be
sufficiently taken through diet.
The sources of niacin are chicken, eggs, fish and meat.
Headache and Migraine
to say headache is an ache. Migraine is a severe headache,
which is usually to one side of the head, and it could be
accompanied with nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances.
can be caused because of a primary reasons and secondary
reasons. The reasons will be mentioned together. They are
stress, eyestrain, nasal congestion, alcoholic beverages,
tumors in the brain, head injuries, severe hypertension and
diseases of the eye, throat, ear and vertebrae.
causes of migraine are head injuries, emotional problems and
drinking red wine and other alcoholic beverages.
preventive nutrition for headaches and migraines is to
completely avoid red wine and other alcoholic beverages.
One should prevent hypertension.
One should not eat certain foods that can irritate the
stomach like nitrite-containing foods, which in turn, can
is excessive sleep. It
is sleeping more than 25% of the normal sleep in any given 24
of hypnotic drugs
preventive nutrition is to avoid being hyperglycemic.
Diabetic patients should control their hyperglycemic
state. Patients who are
anemic nutritionally and those who suffer from hypothyroidism
should correct their conditions.
One should learn the causes of anemia, hypothyroidism
and diabetes mellitus and how to prevent them.
The causes and the nutritional prevention are discussed
under the respective topics.
is a condition where there is sleeplessness.
is a condition where a person is not able to sleep normally.
for some time during the day
to hypothalamus region
to sedative drugs
drinking of water at nights
drugs for hypertension
not drink excessive water or fluids at night, especially
before sleep. If one
does this, the person would get up in the night and this would
disturb the sleep process and later cause insomnia.
One should not drink coffee because it acts as a
stimulant and one should not drink alcohol.
Individuals should try to prevent hypertension at all
costs or else they would be forced to take diuretic drugs,
which in turn, will boomerang on their sleep.
should do exercise during the day so that it could induce
sleep in the night. For
some people, drinking a warm cup of milk before sleeping could
induce sleep. Lastly,
the author advises to leave all your cares at the feet of the
Lord Jesus and ask Him to give you good sleep.
This advice is not nutritional but it is a very
important one. For more on insomnia please read the authors
book, Dr. Stevensons Solutions to A to Z Problems in Life.
is a paralysing disease. It is a nervous systemic disease
where there is gradual spastic paralysis of the lower limbs,
occurring mostly in adults.
cause is a toxin known as Beta oxalyl amino alamine (BOAA)
which is found in Lathyrus sativus.16
Neurolathyrism has been reported in
nutritional prevention is not to grow the crop of
Lathyrus sativus. Although it has good content of
protein, it also has the deadly toxin.
This sativus should not be ingested.
The government of the concerned countries where there
is the presence of neurolathyrism should ban the growing of
this crop. If this
cannot be done, then measures have to be taken to remove the
toxin. It can be removed
by boiling in hot water because it is soluble in water.
Before boiling, it should be soaked in limewater.
Nutritional education should be given to the farmers
regarding the harmful effects of this sativus.
vomiting is throwing up of food voluntarily and not because of
physiological reasons. The
author is not dealing with the anorexia bulimia and
anorexia nervosa in this section.
people throw up or vomit because the food is not tasteful,
while others will do so because the food is not culturally
accepted, for example, eating a snake or a dog which is alien
to their culture. Sometimes
a child might throw up purposely to show his tantrum.
education should be imparted to all people regarding what is
good to eat and what is not. Persons
should not eat anything, which they find to be alien or
repulsive. They should
be taught that some foods might not be tasty but are good for
health. Children should
be taught not to use food to show their anger or tantrums.
is a condition where the physical and mental functions can be
reasons diseases, cancers and
nutritional problems like diabetes mellitus and nutritional
habits like alcoholism
reasons depression, anxiety and phobias
reasons marriage problems, caste and class problems, crime and
violence, smoking, and
reasons unemployment, working conditions, financial
constraints and lack of money
people suffer from nutritional problems like diabetes
mellitus, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease,
hemorrhoids, nutritionally related cancers like oral cancer,
liver cancer and colorectal cancer, these problems will
definitely stress them out. Hence,
these nutritional problems and diseases should be prevented.
Some persons reason that if they drink alcohol, it will
remove the stress but they are wrong.
After the effects of alcohol are over, they will be
more stressed and they will drink more.
This is a vicious cycle.
Hence, alcohol should not be ingested.
If some persons are stressed when they eat outside
their homes like in a restaurant, then they should carry their
own food and water. For
more information, please read the authors book, Dr. Stevensons
Solutions to A to Z Problems in Life.
Stroke or Hemiplegia
is paralysis of one side of the body.
If the left side of the body is paralyzed, then the
right side of the brain is affected.
This disease is a cerebrovascular disease.
In laymans term it is called a stroke.
actual cause of hemiplegia could be a cerebral thrombosis
(blood clot), cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) or
cerebral ischemic condition (insufficient blood supply).
risk factors of hemiplegia or stroke are as follows:
order to prevent stroke, one has to avoid the risk factors
like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and
obesity. Please check
the causes and the nutritional prevention under the respective
topics. One should
completely stop drinking alcohol if they are alcoholics and if
they are not, then they should never try to taste alcohol.
Unconsciousness and Coma
is a state where a person is not conscious. Deep
unconsciousness for a long time is known as coma.
of unconsciousness and coma:
in the brain
or cancers of the brain
in the brain
conditions in the brain
to the head
like epilepsy, diabetic acidosis
order to prevent unconsciousness and coma nutritionally, one
has to avoid diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and
hypertension. Please see
the respective topics for the causes and nutritional
prevention. One should
not drink alcohol. The diabetics should control their
hyperglycemic state (too much glucose in the blood) and
hypoglycemic state (very less glucose in the blood).
and Diseases of the Skeleto-muscular System
it is a disease where there is an abnormal urea metabolism.
There is reduced ability to excrete uric acid.
There will be severe pain and inflammation in the
joints of the patients.
cause of gout is the idiopathic. Some medical
scientists are of the opinion that it is genetic.
The secondary causes of gout are as follows:
of the urinary tract system
people, who are obese, are vulnerable to this disease, they
should avoid being so. How
to prevent obesity, please check under its topic.
One should not drink alcohol.
Patients suffering from gout should not eat foods which
is high in purine
content of food like
mushrooms, sardines, meat, liver, kidney and other organ
is a progressive demineralization of the bone.
There will be loss of bone material, which will make it
vulnerable for factures.
anything which contains caffeine
order to avoid osteoporosis, one should ingest sufficient
calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D on daily basis. The RDA for
calcium for male adults is 800 mg per day and for female
adults is 1000 mg per day. The
author recommends for menopausal women to take 1000-1200 mg
per day if they are not suffering from urinary calculi. The
food sources that have high content of calcium are cheese, ice
cream, cabbage and green leafy vegetables. For vitamin D, 5
micrograms is recommended per day for both adult males and
females. The good sources of vitamin D are fortified milk,
fish liver oil and exposure to sunlight. For phosphorus, the
ideal is about 800mg per day for adults.
But the author recommends at least 1200mg per day for
postmenopausal women. The food sources for phosphorous are ice
cream, cheese, milk, fish, nuts and legumes. To avoid
osteoporosis, one should try not to eat or drink anything that
contains caffeine. One
should not drink alcohol.
Rickets and Osteomalacia
is a disease in children where there is deformity of the bones
due to vitamin D deficiency. It
is called osteomalacia in adults.
prevent rickets, one should take sufficient vitamin D in the
diet. The RDA is 10
microgram per day. The good sources of vitamin D are fortified
milk, fish liver oil and also exposure to sunlight. People who
live in places where there are long winters, should take
vitamin D supplements. Muslim
women who cover themselves from head to toe must also take
vitamin D supplements, if their diet does not have sufficient
supply of vitamin D.
Diseases of the Eye
spots are white foamy spots in the cornea. These spots are
named after Paya Bitot, a French physician who first observed
prevent bitots spots, people should eat diet, which has a
sufficient amount of vitamin A from infancy.
The RDA for vitamin A during infancy is 375 micrograms
retinol equivalents. For
adult males, it is 1000 micrograms retinol equivalents and for
adult females it is 800 micrograms retinol equivalents.
Vitamin A can be found in two types, namely, retinol
(pre-formed vitamin A) and carotene (pre-cursor for vitamin
A). The good sources of retinol are liver, and kidneys of
animals, egg yolk, butter, fortified margarine and cheese.
The sources of carotene are carrot, pumpkin, sweet
potato, mango, papaya, green leafy vegetables like spinach and
turnips. For patients who are suffering from bitots spots,
injections of vitamin A should be administered to avoid
further destruction of the eyes.
is the ulceration of the cornea of the eye and this would lead
vitamin A deficiency
nutritional prevention is to follow the advice and suggestions
made under bitots spots. Keratomalacia
is best to be prevented because it could be irreversible and
it will lead to blindness.
blindness is known as nyctalopia. It is a visual impairment
during dusk time. The eyesight becomes poor during dusk time
and whenever there is insufficient light.
A deficiency and sometimes congenital defects
nutritional prevention is to eat diet which has sufficient
vitamin A. Sometimes
when the diet lacks vitamin A, it is good to take vitamin A
is a condition where the conjunctiva is dry and lustreless.
nutritional prevention mentioned under bitots spots should be
Deficiencies and Toxicities
risk for urinary stones
fiber -- atherosclerosis,
colorectal cancer, breast cancer, hemorrhoids,
obesity, diabetes mellitus
obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, risk for
colorectal, prostate and breast cancers
with calcium absorption
blindness, keratomalacia, xerosis, bitots spots
peeling of skin and hair
children, osteomalacia in adults
hemolysis in undernourished children
deficiency is prolonged, it leads to hemorrhage
fatigue, depression, poor appetite and neuritis of
cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions
scaly skin, inflammation of conjunctiva
upsets, nervousness, convulsions
hands and feet, tingling sensation
red blood cells, anemia, pernicious anemia
poor wound healing, gastrointestinal upsets,
vomiting, diarrhea, formation of urinary calculi
red blood cells, anemia especially during pregnancy
with absorption of zinc,
may mask pernicious anemia
redness of the skin
appetite and hair, deficiency occurs if raw egg-white
is eaten in large amounts
arms and legs
calculi, interferes with other mineral absorptions
cramps, hypotension, dehydration, confusion
appetite, muscle cramps
fatigue, hypochromic microcytic red blood cells
with thyroid function
and discolourizati-on of teeth
pain, risk for heart disease
vomiting, hair loss, weakness, liver disease
maturity, delayed wound healing, diminished taste
cramps, poor absorption of iron
order to prevent the deficiencies and toxicities of various
nutrients, their RDAs should be followed and a balanced diet
should be ingested. Foods
that have nutrient density must be eaten and not foods that
have nutritional empty calories.
is a malignant growth in a tissue or organ. There are
different types of cancers. Carcinoma is cancer of the
epithelium tissues; sarcoma is cancer of the connective
tissues like in bone and muscles; leukemia and lymphomas are
cancers of the blood-forming organs and melanoma is cancer of
the skin. Cancerous
growth is a proliferation of growth of cells where it is
uncontrolled and could invade surrounding tissues and other
parts of the body through lymph and blood fluids.
It can cause metastasis to other parts of the body.
If not treated early, the ultimate result is death.
is the second leading cause of death in the
and nearly 5 million have died since 1990.17
One out of every 2 to 3 persons in the
will develop some type of cancer during their lifetime.18
The leading cancer among men is prostate cancer, breast
cancer among women and
among both is lung cancer.
is a great miracle of Lord Jesus if one does not have cancer
because one of every two persons can develop cancer. Whether
one believes in the existence of God or His miraculous works
or not, His truth is not divided.
When some persons suffer from cancer, they promise God
to serve Him if they are healed. When they are healed, they
say it is a miracle and give their life to Lord Jesus.
What the author is conveying is that not suffering from
cancer is itself a miracle, so why doesnt one give his/her
life to Lord Jesus and serve Him instead of suffering from
cancer at a later time and pray to be healed then.
Many cancers are idiopathic, so not having cancer is a
blessing. Psalm 150:6
states Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. Praise
the Lord. Therefore, we have the breath, and it is not cancer
tainted. We ought to be
grateful to God. Those
who have cancers should realize that God has His own plan,
even though He did not cause the cancer in the body, He
permitted it and can still do a miracle if it is His will.
However, the cancer patient should follow the medical
regimen and leave the rest to God. The cancer patients should
advise others who are not suffering from cancer to stay close
to God because He is very gracious to them.
causes of most cancers are idiopathic (not known). The
development of cancer usually takes place in stages.
First there is initiation, where there is genetic
mutation occurring in the cell.
This cell turns into a latent cancerous cell. The
affected cell may immediately start developing to the next
stage or may lie dormant for months or years.
The second stage is promotion.
Stimulation of the initiated cell by a promoting agent
will lead to the progression of a latent cancer cell; which
multiplies uncontrollably and leads to malignancy.
Sometimes the promoter may not act as an initiator but
there are agents known as complete carcinogens, which can
cause cancer. They can
both initiate and promote cancer.
will produce cancerous cells. Research
has shown that there are mutations in DNA sequences that can
lead to the initiation of cancer cells. There are internal and
external risk factors for cancers.
internal risk factors are genetic, age, sex, race and
cancer patients exhibit chromosomal abnormalities like
deletions, inversions and translocations. Patients with
chronic myelogenous leukemia may have the
chromosome which is 22p- chromosome.
Downs syndrome patients are susceptible to cancers.19
Other genetic predispositions of cancer are familial
polyposis and breast cancer.
people age, they are more risks for cancer.
affects both sexes with breast cancer leading among females
and prostate cancer among males.
Lung cancer affects both.
have more incidences of cancer because of low socio-economic
factors that may prevent early detection and may even increase
exposure to environmental carcinogens.
Whites are vulnerable to skin cancers.
carcinogens: These include arsenic, asbestos, benzene and
Ionizing radiation of all kinds can be carcinogenic, for
example x-rays and nuclear radiation.
Fair skinned people are vulnerable to skin cancers
because of ultra violet radiation.
Research has shown that several viruses can cause cancers.
The cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause Kaposis sarcoma.
Epstein-Barr virus can cause Burkitts lymphoma.
Hepatitis B virus can cause hepatocellular
papilloma viruses can cause cervical carcinoma.20
Faulty diet, that is, diet high in fat and low in fiber
has been associated strongly with colorectal, breast and
like smoked fish, jerk chicken and pork can be a risk for
stomach cancer since smoke can be carcinogenic. Ellen White in
her book Counsels on Diet and Foods, page 388, stated,
Cancers, tumors and all inflammatory diseases are largely
caused by meat eating.
carcinogenic to the liver. It
has been associated with liver cancer, esophageal cancer and
Smoking: Smoking is an evil habit because tobacco contains
nicotine and produces carbon monoxide when smoked, which
is carcinogenic and leads to cancer of the lung.
Cigarette smoking has also been implicated in
cancers of the mouth, pharynx and bladder.
Pipe smoking is associated with lip cancer.
Carcinogens: Some drugs like alkylating agents,
oxymetholone and diethylstilbestrol can be carcinogenic.21
Cancers and Diet Associations
Cancer---the specific dietary involvement with this cancer is
non nutritive alternative sweetener saccharin, which has
produced bladder cancer in some animals.22 It is
thought that it can also cause bladder cancer to humans, but
this has not been proven yet. Possible associations with
alcohol and coffee.
Cancer---high fat,23 low fiber and alcohol
Cancer---high fat especially cholesterol and saturated fat,24
low fiber and
Cancer--- alcohol and
plenty of hot spices
Cancer---alcohol, aflatoxins in spoiled grains and peanuts
Cancer---chewing of betel leaves and nuts along with lime
powder, tobacco and drinking alcohol
cancer---alcohol, chewing betel nut and leaves along with lime
powder, and hot spices
Cancer---high fat and low fiber
Cancer---smoked food25 like smoked fish, jerk
chicken and jerk pork and foods containing nitrites
Cancer--- high fat and low fiber
Nutrition for Cancers
nutrition can only cut or reduce risk factors for cancers.
It cannot prevent cancers completely because there are
many other factors that interplay in the causation of cancers.
Cancer prevention nutritionally should start from birth
and end at death.
prevention is based duly on the premise that food eaten should
cut risk factors and inhibit the promotion of cancers. The
author has made nutritional suggestions.
Eat foods that are rich in antioxidants,
which can inhibit the promotion of cancers.
antioxidants are carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, and
microelement selenium. These antioxidants act as scavengers to
inactivate certain chemical substances known as free radicals
which are atoms or molecules with one or more unpaired
electrons in their outer orbits.
This imbalance makes them highly reactive.
Free radicals are produced all the time in the body as
by-products of normal metabolism.
Free radicals because of their unstable conditions,
they try to react with other cells and cause damage to them.
Carotenoids and Retinoids
inhibits cancerous growth. Carotenoids are
antioxidants which can inactivate free radicals which
damage the cells of the body. Carotenoids
are found in yellow vegetables like carrots, pumpkins, sweet
potatoes; yellow fruits like mangoes, papaya, apricot; green
leafy vegetables like turnips, spinach, broccoli; red fruits
and vegetables like tomatoes and red sweet pepper.
have been shown through research in vivo and vitro that they
can act and regulate cellular growth.
They also suppress leukoplakia, which is a pre
malignant lesion. Cancer
patients should eat a
lot of retinoids which is a pre-formed vitamin A, as it
inhibits cancerous growths. Foods rich in Vitamin A are found
in plant foods, whole milk, butter cream, egg yolk and cheese.
It is not good to take excess of butter and egg yolk as
this may lead to atherosclerosis.
b) Vitamin C
Vitamin C can
also aid to prevent the promotion of cancer. Vitamin C can
prevent nitrites from combining with amines to produce
nitrosamines (which could be carcinogenic to the stomach).
Foods rich in vitamin C are all citrus fruits,
strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and raw green vegetables. It
is better to eat fruits whole than
to make juice, because making juice rids the fruits of
c) Vitamin E
Vitamin E is
a very good antioxidant, which can scavenge the free radicals.
Sources for vitamin E include salad oil, shortenings,
legumes, whole grains, nuts and green leafy vegetables.
selenium are meat, egg, fish, seafood
and whole grains.
Eat diet that has high fiber
fiber in the diet can inhibit the promotion of cancer.
They can help to reduce the risks for colorectal,
breast, prostate and uterus cancers.
Dietary fiber inhibits the absorption of saturated fats
and cholesterol. Foods rich in fiber are wheat, wheat bran,
oats, oat bran, legumes, beans, citrus fruits like oranges and
grapes and vegetables. Adam and Eve were eating only fruits in
the Garden of Eden before any disease was known.
So fruits are very good for health as they have dietary
fiber, beta-carotene and Vitamin C which all act as
antioxidants. But don't ingest too much fiber as it can cause
flatulence, diarrhea and poor mineral absorption.
Eat foods that are low in fat
foods are known to promote cancer growths.
fatty foods should not be eaten often and in plenty rather
these foods should be eaten sparingly.
The total fat intake should be less than 30% of the
total dietary intake per day. Less than 10% of
total fat should
come from saturated fat and
the remaining percent of the fat from monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fats. Cut down flesh foods.
Avoid eating smoked food
should not eat smoked foods, as smoke is carcinogenic.
These foods include jerk chicken, jerk pork and smoked
Completely abstain from alcohol in all its forms
has been associated with cancer of the liver, mouth, esophagus
and colon. If alcohol is ingested moderately, it will lead to
addiction. Therefore, alcohol must be completely avoided.
Do not eat food items that are very spicy and betel leaves and
that contain high spices can put a person at risk for
esophageal and stomach cancer. Betel leaves and nuts are risk
factors for oral cancer. Although smoking is not part of diet,
the author advises smokers to give it up because it
predisposes one to lung cancer and bladder cancer.
The others who dont smoke, it is best for them not to
Follow Biblical nutritional principles
should follow God's commandments. 1 Corinthians 6:19 says Know
ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit. So let
us keep our bodies holy and healthy by eating fruits,
vegetables and foods high in dietary fiber.
Nowadays, a lot of cattle are having diseases and these
can be spread through meat eating.
It is good to eat more fruits and vegetables and less
flesh foods. Ezekiel 47:12 states, and the fruit thereof shall
be for meat and the leaves thereof for medicine.
This clearly states that fruits should be emphasized in
our diet. The Bible
shows the importance of eating pulses and drinking water.
Daniel and his friends in the Bible refused alcohol and
flesh foods and ate pulses and drank water.
They were more intelligent and stronger physically than
the other persons who ate meat and drank alcohol.
We should decrease salty and spicy foods.
alcohol, the Bible clearly says in Habakkuk 2:5 that drinking
wine is a sin and in Isaiah 28:7, it states They erred through
wine and strong drinks and are out of the way.
So we can see that people have sinned by drinking
alcohol. Ephesians 5:18
says, Be not be drunk with wine wherein is excess but rather
be filled with the Spirit of God.
Galatians 5:21 reveals that if people are drunk with
alcohol they cannot inherit the
. Let us follow what is
advised in 1 Corinthians 3:17, which states, If any man
, him shall God destroy for the
is holy. Let us try to
please God by keeping our bodies clean lest God destroy us.
When we drink alcohol, we are destroying our bodies and
the Holy Spirit will not dwell in us.
Prevention is better than cure.
causes, symptoms and nutritional prevention of cancers must be
inculcated from childhood. The nutritional education should
not only be preached but must be practised by all.
Prevention of Cancer
prevention is early detection of cancer and medical treatment.
When detected early, lives can be saved.
help in early detection, the acronym CAUTION can be followed.
Changes in bowel and bladder movements
A sore that doesn't heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening of lump in breast or elsewhere
Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
Obvious change in wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
any of these signs is noticed, one should immediately see a
medical doctor to rule out cancer or be treated early for
cancer. Once metastasis
takes place, there is no chance of survival.
allergy is an adverse reaction due to food components that is
immunologically mediated and can cause functional changes in
the targeted organ. Food
allergies are usually common in infants and decline as they
grow. Sometimes, the development of allergy is related to
hereditary conditions, immune response of the body and
gastrointestinal functions. The gastrointestinal symptoms of
allergies include burning, swelling of mouth, lips, tongue and
pharynx. It can also
lead to joint pains. There
could also be systemic anaphylaxis or severe allergic
reactions that can be very dangerous and fatal to people.
food allergies involve IgE-mediated response.
Food proteins act as antigens and bind to IgE
which is attached to mast cells on the surface. When
this contact happens, the antigen-antibody reaction takes
place with a release of mediators like histamine and
cause symptoms of food allergies.
Reactions can be immediate or delayed.
Usually the gastrointestinal symptoms are common. There
may be respiratory effects such as nasal congestion, sneezing
and wheezing; skin symptoms like urticaria and eczema.
The common foods that can trigger allergies are
shellfish, eggs, salt fish, soybeans, peanuts, cashew nuts,
cows milk, wheat and eggplant.
patient is the best person to find out what type of food he or
she is allergic to. That
person should have a diet history to find out if anyone else
in the family is suffering from that allergy. Sometimes the
same foods cause allergies in the family, other times
different foods but the fact that it is a familial problem can
be ascertained. There
should be a food and symptom diary, a detailed record of which
foods are eaten and what symptoms occur.
Those foods should be avoided by elimination from the
diet. After a few
months, they should challenge the food by taking little at a
time because sometimes the allergies disappear.
If the food still causes severe allergic reactions,
they are to take immunological testing and should be treated
by a medical doctor who is a specialist in treating allergies.
is a severe case of food poisoning and it is caused because of
the neurotoxin botulin produced by clostridium botulinum.
symptoms of botulism are double vision, drooping eyelids,
slurred speech, difficulty in swallowing, weakness and
already mentioned, it is because of the toxin botulin produced
by clostridium botulinum. This particular microorganism is
found in soil, dust and enter foods as spore.
The foods that are mostly responsible for botulism are
smoked or pickled fish, home made pickles, canned vegetables
and low acidic food due to improper preservation.
heat can kill the microorganism and destroy the neurotoxin. So
any canned food, when opened must be heated so that the
microorganism and the neurotoxin, if any, are destroyed.
Since pickles are not heated, they should be properly
preserved. Food handling
should be done hygienically. If
pickles at any time have a funny smell or unpleasant look, it
is best not to eat them. Homemade
food could be heated to kill microorganism.
is poisoning due to noxious mushrooms. Some of the dangerous
species of mushrooms are Amanita virosa, Amanita verna and
known as amatoxin produced by the above mushrooms is the
a part of these poisonous mushrooms is eaten, it could be so
detrimental to health and can even cause death.
It would cause death by necrosing masses of the
kidneys, liver and skeletal muscles.
education regarding mushrooms should be imparted so that
people can identify good and bad mushrooms.
When one goes out to eat, and one is not sure of the
mushroom whether it is safe, then it is best not to eat it.
Its better not to eat it than be stressed later wondering if
the mushroom was poisonous or not. When picking mushrooms, an
experienced person must
accompany others. The
brownish and more colorful ones
are poisonous. Mushrooms
sold in supermarkets are good ones because they
have been inspected.
is an animal
disease but humans also acquire it through farm animals
through contaminated milk, meat and eggs.
is caused by the microorganism Salmonella
enteritidis or Salmonella typhimurium.
the transmission of salmonellosis is through contaminated
food, this route should
be blocked. Transmission
can be facilitated through improper food handling, cooking,
processing and storage. There
should be hygienic slaughtering and milking. Milk should be
pasteurized. There should be proper disposal of liquids and
waste. Health education and training should be provided to the
workers in poultries and farms.
Food should be properly cooked in order to be safe.
These diseases should be prevented among livestock and
Foods contaminated with rat and cockroach
can be contaminated with the poisons used to kill rats and
cockroaches, if they are not properly used.
poisons used for killing rats are barium compounds.
Previously, thallium was used. When improper techniques
are followed while using these poisons, then food and water
can be contaminated.
of all, there should be nutritional education on how to use
these poisons. All foods and water containers are to be kept
away from the site of the poisoning areas.
Gloves should be worn and poisons placed in strategic
positions such as crevices. Afterwards, the poison should be
completely washed off. For
rats, it is better to use a trap in order to get rid of them.
If the houses are kept clean always, then cockroaches
and rats may not be found.
Overweight and Obesity
is a condition where a persons weight is between 10-20% over
the reference weight for height according to sex in the
persons country or region. Obesity may be defined as abnormal
growth of adipose tissue either because of an increase of fat
cells or increase in cell size or both.
Obesity is more than 20% of the reference weight for
height according to sex in the persons country or region. See
Appendix 4a and 4b for the reference weight for height for
Americans. Females and
males with body mass index between 25 and 30 are classified as
overweight and who are over 30 are obese.
cause of obesity is not known but risk factors are known.
non-modifiable risk factors are age, where obesity increases
with; sex, where obesity can affect both sexes.
Usually males put on weight in the abdominal region
(android obesity which is apple shaped) while women put on
weight on the hips, buttocks and thighs (gynoid obesity which
is pear shaped). Studies have shown that there is genetic
predisposition for obesity.
Persons who ingest high concentrations of refined
carbohydrates, fat (especially saturated fat and cholesterol)
and excessive intake of calories tend to put on weight.
inactivity: People, who are not involved in physical activity
and dont burn up extra calories
end up putting on weight.
and other psychological problems: Persons with psychological
problems such as depression and frustration, sometimes, tend
to over eat.
intake: Persons who drink alcohol may tend to put on weight.
factors: Socio-economic factors like
high income and social class may contribute to obesity.
problems: Patients with hypothyroidism and patients who use
corticosteroids for a long period of time can become obese.
of the best ways to assess obesity is to calculate the Body
Mass Index. The formula is
= Weight in kgs
and males with BMI between 25 and 30 are classified as
overweight and with BMI
over 30 as obese.
is another index known as the Broca Index, which can be used.
The formula for this is:
in cm - 100
example, if a person is 180 cm tall, then you are to minus 100
from 180, which is 80. This
80 should be taken as weight in kgs, which should be the
desirable weight for that person.
Index =Actual weight
is more than 1.2, then the person is said to be obese.
weight for height reference standards of the country can also
be used for obesity assessment.
Skin fold measurements at the biceps and triceps can
also be used and compared to the 50th percentile of
the standard reference of the country from which one hails.
If a country does not have reference anthropometric
standards, then those of the region should be used.
The skin fold measurement above the supra iliac crest
is good indicator for determining if a person is obese or not.
This skin fold measurement is done one inch above the
crest and is compared to the 50th percentile of the
reference standards for that age and sex. One can also measure
mid-arm circumference, then compare
with the 50th percentile of the reference
standard of the country from which one hails.
author is not going to discuss how one should lose weight or
what are the techniques for reducing weight for those who are
obese since this book focuses on nutritional prevention.
In order to prevent being overweight and obese, one
needs nutritional education from childhood.
One should be inculcated on how to maintain normal
weight and how not to be obese.
This is basically primordial and primary prevention,
that is, prevention before the onset of the problem.
When children are taught by parents what are right
foods to eat and importance of exercise, then this upbringing
will help them grow with a normal weight.
Children who are born fat have to cut down on excessive
intake of fatty foods and high carbohydrate foods such as ice
cream, cakes and chocolate. These
children must exercise or play active games regularly.
It is easy to put on weight but very hard to get rid of
the adipose tissue, therefore putting nutritional education
into practice is very important.
with obese parents must take extra precaution. Children should
not be encouraged to think that they can eat as much as they
can and later in life reduce weight.
What extra weight one puts on in a month may at least
take a year to reduce it. This
is because burning up of calories gained from fat is not easy.
Exercise involving long duration and endurance can burn
up the calories gained from the fat. Always remember that
prevention is better than cure.
Children and youth should eat balanced diet and check
weights and calculate BMI regularly.
They should be motivated in schools to keep fit and
live healthy lifestyles. Children
should live a life conducive to maintaining normal weight so
that they can avoid being overweight and obese.
One should eschew alcohol.
One should try to stay away from junk food and
high-calorie foods if at all one has to maintain a normal
restaurants everyday should be avoided as the foods served
there are rich in fat and can easily promote obesity.
Lastly, one must follow Gods ways and instructions.
One should eat to live and not live to eat.
is a condition where a person weighs much below the reference
standard weight for height according to sex, of ones country.
Females are said to be underweight if their BMI is less
than 19 and males if less than 20.
very less food will give inadequate calories, which in turn,
can cause underweight. More
expenditure of calories than the calorie intake is another
factor. Ignorance of nutritional principles is another reason.
Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa, diseases like
hyperthyroidism, cancers, AIDS can cause underweight.
Symptoms like fever and diarrhea can inhibit appetite.
same procedures used for overweight and obesity assessment can
be used for underweight assessment.
These include height, weight (please check Appendix 4a
and 4b), mid-arm circumference, skin fold measurement at
biceps, triceps and the supra iliac.
If these fall below reference standards, then the
person is said to be underweight.
If they fall below the 10th percentile, then
the person is extremely underweight.
should be an increase of calorie intake.
Meals should be well balanced.
People who are underweight should eat foods rich in fat
because 1g of fat gives 9 kilocalories.
Foods high in fat include ice cream, cake, butter, oils
and fried foods. However,
they shouldnt be eaten too much at one time as these fatty
foods can cause dyspepsia or constipation.
Dietary fiber should be eaten as it prevents
constipation. Lots of
fluids should be taken.
exercise is recommended for underweight persons.
Moderate to heavy exercise will burn up calories while
light exercise will tone up muscles and keep the individual
fit and can increase appetite. There
are tonics that increase appetite which can be taken.
Those who are deficient in vitamins and minerals should
take multivitamin and multimineral supplements to make up for
the deficiencies. Underlying
diseases such as hyperthyroidism and eating disorders should
be treated. If not
treated, attempts to put on weight will fail.
Symptoms like fever and diarrhea should also be
managed. Underweight persons need adequate sleep to put on
weight. They should
avoid alcoholic drinks, smoking and stress, which can
interrupt normal eating. Skipping
meals should not be practised.
M. Symptoms and Diseases involving
It is a
nutritional disease that is a result of thiamin deficiency.
It attacks the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and the
nervous systems. Symptoms
vary and these may include loss of appetite, fatigue,
depression, slim and painful extremities, numbing of feet and
weakness of legs. Beriberi
is common in countries where most energy is received from
carbohydrates, especially from refined and polished rice.
already mentioned, it is due to thiamin deficiency.
education must be imparted and well balanced diet should be
eaten. Good sources of thiamin are dry beans, peas, peanut
butter, parboiled rice or undermilled rice, milk and eggs.
People should avoid eating refined and polished rice.
The RDA for men is 1.5 mg and for women is 1.1 mg.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
syndrome affects babies born to women who drink a lot of
alcohol during pregnancy.
alcohol ingested by the pregnant mother crosses to fetal
circulation and affects the fetus.
Oxygen supplied to the fetus is reduced.
Fetal cells are also reduced.
Babies with this syndrome are born with a small head
circumference and face, and suffer from retarded physical
growth, impaired nervous system and mental retardation.
to completely avoid alcohol during pregnancy.
Low Birth Weight
who are born with a weight less than 2500 grams are classified
as underweight in developing countries.
There are more cases of low birth weight in developing
countries and fewer cases in developed countries.
causes are multifactorial. The
causes could be mothers poor nutritional health, illnesses
during pregnancy, smoking, alcoholism, poor spacing between
births and multigravida.
pregnant woman should take enough of calories and nutrients.
Nutritional requirements increase during pregnancy.
The woman who usually takes 50 grams of protein should
take 60 grams when pregnant. Her
calorie intake should be increased by 500 kcals.
If she is not eating good diet, then she should take
supplements of minerals and vitamins so as not to be
deficient. Females who
are very young should not become pregnant as they themselves
are still growing. Their
physical needs and demands are greater and will compete with
the fetus. Alcohol
should be avoided. Any disease during pregnancy should be
a condition where there is protein
undernourishment. The baby between 18 and 24 months
could be affected. This
usually happens when an infant is weaned.
Usually the suffering child will have edema, diarrhea,
round face, enlarged liver and hair is easily plucked.
intake of proteins
order to prevent kwashiorkor, the mother should start giving
the child supplementary diet to breast milk from about 4 to 6
months. The mother
should also space the next baby. The infants supplement food
should have enough protein and also multi minerals and
vitamins. Milk formulae
normally have these requirements.
a condition where the infant has deficiency of protein and
calories. This disease
could affect infants between 6 and 12 months.
A child with kwashiorkor has a deficiency of proteins
but has adequate
calories, whereas a child with marasmus has a deficiency of
both proteins and calories. Theres also a lack of multi
vitamins and minerals. The
infant with marasmus will suffer from wasting and wrinkling of
the skin. The infant
will not have edema and round face.
However, in kwashiorkor, there is edema.
Another symptom of marasmus is diarrhea.
Hair color does not change and the hair is not easily
of proteins and calories
education should be given to nursing mothers and would be
mothers. At 4 to 6
months, the infants meals should be high in fortified dry
cereals, mixed cereals, which are high in protein, strained
meats and mashed cooked egg. Therefore, the infant should be
fed with a lot of calories and proteins along with multiple
vitamins and minerals, which should be received through the
food and milk formulae.
It is a
disease which has 4 classic Ds: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis
and death. The symptoms
are sore and swollen tongue and dermatitis, which is usually
affected part of the body becomes sensitive to sun.
One may also suffer depression, dementia and
disorientation and if no treatment is received, then death can
deficiency or failure of tryptophan to be converted to niacin
preventive nutrition is to eat a diet with sufficient supply
of niacin. The good
sources of niacin include meat, fish and chicken.
Some niacin is also present in vegetables such as the
dark, green and leafy ones. It
could be found even in enriched whole grain cereals.
Tryptophan which is
found in protein can be converted to niacin in the body.
The RDA of niacin is 6.6 mg
for 1000 kilocalories. If
a person is ingesting 2000 kilocalories, then the requirement
is 13.2 mg per day. If
people eat maize, then milk should also be included because it
is a good source of tryptophan, which helps to absorb the
an inflammation of sebaceous glands. It affects the face, the
chest and the back. It
mostly affects adolescents.
inflammation of the sebaceous glands could be due to
infections, obstruction of the channels and poor personal
hygiene. High fatty food
can contribute to the problem.
nutritional education should be inculcated in the children and
vulnerable to this problem should avoid eating diet which is
high in fat such as ice cream, butter, cheese and oily foods.
Good personal hygiene should be maintained.
Various skin problems
skin problems like scaly skin, purpura, petechiae, eczema and
pallor may be due to nutritional deficiencies.
Please check appendix 3 to see the clinical signs and
possible nutrient deficiencies.
The concerned nutrients
which cause these skin problems
should be taken adequately through diet.
is an inborn error of metabolism where there is inability to
convert galactose to glucose. The
baby usually experiences diarrhea, vomiting, edema and liver
cause is absence of the liver enzyme necessary to convert
galactose to glucose. It
is genetically inherited.
cannot prevent any genetic disorder.
However, further complications can be curtailed through
nutrition provided it can be done so.
prevent brain damage of the patient suffering from
galactosemia a diet free
of glucose and galactose should be given.
Since milk from all mammals contain lactose, soy-based
formulae can be used as substitute.
All foods containing milk should be avoided.
Organ meats contain galactose and should also be
avoided. Therefore all
foods containing lactose or galactose are to be avoided.
is a hereditary disease where there is a defect in the
metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. High levels of
phenylalanine in blood can cause mental retardation,
irritability, eczema and there could be convulsions.
liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which is necessary to
convert phenylalanine to tyrosine is absent or inactive.
The phenylalanine is accumulated in the blood and the
phenylketones are excreted in urine.
mentioned earlier, nutrition cannot prevent it. However, nutritional
modification should be embraced to prevent complications of
this disease. The goal
is to control blood phenylalanine levels by giving foods low
in phenylalanine. The sweetener aspartame is to be avoided as
phenylalanine is the basic component in it.
Any food containing this sweetener is to be avoided as
well. The levels of
phenylalanine in blood and food should be closely monitored.
Nutritional side effects due
medications and drugs cause nutritional side effects when
taken. A diet should be
taken to prevent nutritional side effects as much as possible.
The author will mention a few examples. The antibiotic
erythromycin can cause stomach upsets like vomiting and
diarrhea. So to prevent
further problems, this antibiotic should be taken with food.
Because of the interactions of antibiotics, it is
advisable for some patients to take multi vitamins and
minerals along with antibiotics.
a menopausal woman is taking estrogen replacement, she may
experience nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and edema.
The patient should take estrogen with food, decrease
sodium intake and take in plenty of water.29
a person is taking ketoprofen, which is anti inflammatory,
analgesic and antipyretic, it can cause gastrointestinal side
effects, like nausea, vomiting and flatulence. It is better to
take this drug with little food as more may reduce
is better to avoid foods such as broccoli, cabbage, beans and
red peas as they will increase flatulence.
is good to ask doctors advice regarding nutrition when taking
drugs. One may also
consult a dietician to find out what foods are best, what is
to be increased, replaced and decreased while taking
and Slowing Down of Aging
that aids to Slow Down Aging and Increase Life Expectancy
study of physical and psychological changes in old persons is
called gerontology. The
treatment of diseases and health promotion in the elderly is
known as geriatrics or clinical gerontology.
The term old age is highly subjective.
But old age must be regarded as a normal, inevitable
and biological event. No one can escape aging, if one lives
causes of aging are multifactorial and not fully understood.
Definitely genetics has a big role in aging.
Theres no doubt about it.
Why do some flies live for 90 days, a mouse for 2-5
years, a dog 15-20 years, an elephant 60-65 years, 31
and a bristle cone pine a thousand years? The answer is
genetics. All the above
are programmed genetically to live for a particular period of
time. The fly cannot
live for 60 years and the elephant cannot live for a thousand
years. There are many
theories as to the causation of aging.
The author will discuss a few of these theories that
can be divided into genetic theories and non-genetic theories.
states that every cell is genetically programmed to function
and when the program is over, the cell dies.32 However,
environmental factors can influence this program and can
shorten the length of it.
damage or error theory
states that DNA controls functioning of cells through enzymes.
When there is mutation in DNA, there could be errors in
the message to respective cells, which will cause damage to
definitely play a role in aging because the genetic disorder
progeria is caused by faulty genes that causes premature
aging. Each year is like
a decade to patients with progeria.
When they are 6 years old, they look middle aged. When
10, they look very old and by 13, they usually die.
There is another genetic disorder known as Werners
syndrome where there is progressive physical deterioration and
other aging problems. These
two disorders show that genes do play a role in aging.
states that there would be incomplete cellular oxidative
processes, which result in formation of free radicals which
cause damage to cells and diminish their functions.34
Free radicals are highly unstable atoms or molecules,
which have unpaired electrons in their outer orbits.
They could react with any cell and inflict damage to
that cell. They react in
an attempt to gain stability but end up damaging the cell,
thus diminishing its function.
age increases there will be no soluble collagen but insoluble
collagen that is stiffer and harder.
These stiffer collagen molecules would cross-link. Skin
then will wrinkle, muscles will not be toned and blood vessels
lose elasticity.35 Collagen is a building material
of tissues in muscle,
bone and skin.
are many theories, and not one can explain all the aspects of
aging. There are even psychological theories of aging.
However, genes and free radicals play their role in
since Adam and Eve sinned in the Garden of Eden, the problem
of aging began. Menopause
is one of the signs of aging; this is usually between the ages
45-50 in women. The
protective function of estrogen is reduced and women become
more prone to osteoporosis and heart problems.
As aging takes place, people are highly vulnerable to
many sicknesses such as osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, coronary heart disease hemiplegia, renal failure,
hearing loss, eye problems and sexual dysfunctions.
are external factors that contribute to aging.
high in fat (saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol) can
cause atherosclerosis, which in turn, will lead to a host of
diseases that will shorten life. High fatty foods lead to more
formation of free radicals.36
low in fiber and with no antioxidants makes people vulnerable
to nutritional related cancers that will cut short life.
radiation can hasten the aging process. These can shorten the
life span and cause early death.
can weaken the body by damaging cells and tissues and bring
death at early age.
higher the temperature, the faster the metabolic rate, thus
the higher the chances of aging faster.
Studies have shown that in animals, the lower the
temperature, the slower the metabolic rate and those animals
live a little longer.
have shown that obesity shortens life.
There is an adage which is The longer your waistline,
the shorter your life line. Obese
persons are more vulnerable to diabetes mellitus, myocardial
infarction, hypertension and hemiplegia, which can cause death
at an early age.
who are addicted to drugs, alcohol and smoking will suffer
from quicker aging, diseases and finally death.
smoking the combustion of tobacco promotes the oxidation of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and produces free radicals.37
These free radicals hasten aging process.
that Aids to Slow Down Aging and Increase Life Expectancy
can never prevent the aging process but it can aid to slow it
down. According to the free radical damage theory, the free
radicals that are unpaired react and damage other cells, thus
they have a detrimental effect on health.
Studies have shown that antioxidants can inactivate
these free radicals. The following nutritional suggestions are
Eat diet that is rich in antioxidant nutrients
nutrients that are antioxidants are vitamin E, carotenoids,
vitamin C and the micromineral selenium.
These act as scavengers and inactivate free radicals
before they inflict damage to the cells.
E: Food sources are
salad oils, margarines,
whole grains, dark leafy vegetables, legumes and nuts.
Food sources are yellow vegetables like carrots, sweet
potatoes and pumpkin; deep yellow fruits such as mangoes,
papaya and apricot; green leafy vegetables such as spinach,
turnips and red fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and red
C: Food sources include all citrus fruits, strawberries,
tomatoes, broccoli and raw green vegetables.
Citrus fruits such as oranges and grapes are good and
should not be squeezed into juice as this rids them of dietary
fiber, which is very important.
Food sources are seafood, whole grains, eggs, fish and meat.
Vegetables that are grown in selenium rich soil will
also contain the vitamin.
Eat diet that can help the function of collagen
cross-linking can be slowed down by consumption of vitamins C,
E; selenium, calcium and phosphorus.
Since collagen is found in the bones, muscles and skin,
the diet should be rich in calcium to prevent osteoporosis and
bone fracture. Sources
of calcium are milk, mustard, broccoli, cabbage and greens.
Foods rich in phosphorus are milk, cheese, meat, whole
grains, cereals, nuts and legumes.
These strengthen collagen.
Niacin, riboflavin or B2 and essential fatty acids are
good also for healthy skin. Good sources of niacin are dark
leafy vegetables, enriched whole grains, bread, cereals and
rice. Good sources of
vitamin B2 are dark leafy vegetables, enriched whole grains,
rice, milk, meat and dried cereals.
Good sources of essential fatty acids are found in
legumes, nuts, and vegetable oils like sunflower, corn oil and
Increase dietary fiber
helps to prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, atherosclerosis
and cancers like colorectal and breast cancer.
The fiber sources are from plant sources.
Wheat, wheat bran, oat, oat bran, all citrus fruits and
vegetables are good sources of fiber.
author had conducted case studies on 20 old persons ranging
from 60 to 90 years. The
emphasis of the study was on diet and longevity relationship.
Results show that there was more percentage of persons
in this age group who ate more vegetables and fruits and less
flesh foods than the persons who ate more flesh foods and less
vegetables and fruits. See
figure 4 in appendix 5.
Eat foods that are less in fat
down high fatty food especially those high in saturated fat
and cholesterol. Foods
high in cholesterol will cause atherosclerosis. Low density
lipoproteins (LDL) are very dangerous to blood vessels.
Foods high in cholesterol must be reduced and examples
of these include egg yolk, liver, kidney, cheese, ice cream
and butter. Cut down flesh foods.
Complete avoidance of alcohol
destroys liver and brain cells, which in turn cause other
problems. It is good to
completely abstain alcohol. Drinking
once in a while is not good because it leads to tolerance and
addiction. As mentioned
earlier in the book, there is a Chinese proverb that says,
First the man takes the drink, then the drink takes another
drink, finally the drink takes the man. In order to live long
and have long life expectancy, one must completely avoid
alcohol. Drug addiction
and smoking must be avoided as well, as these habits are also
detrimental to health. The author conducted case studies on 20
old persons (60-90years) and found that 60% of males and 70%
of females did not drink alcohol. See figure 4 in appendix 5.
Avoidance of foods that either promote cancer or
like smoked fish, jerk chicken, jerk pork are not good because
they may be carcinogenic. Food
containing nitrites can contribute to cancer of the stomach.
Salt preserved food like pickles and salt dried fish lead to
hypertension. Caffeine and artificial sweeteners like
saccharin is best if avoided.
Drink a lot of water
is very good. More than 60% of body weight is water. People
must learn to drink plenty water from childhood.
Water helps in dissolving and excreting body wastes.
It has a lubricating effect to prevent friction; it
also maintains body temperature.
Knowing all these functions of water should encourage
one to drink enough water everyday.
At least 2 liters of water should be consumed daily.
It is good to drink safe water, that is water free from
all pathogenic microorganisms. If
water containing pathogenic microorganisms is ingested, then
water-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, cholera, typhoid and
helminthic infestation may result.
These diseases can in turn work against the body.
It is best to drink clean and purified water.
If one is not sure of the purity of the water, then it
is wise to boil the water.
important thing is to preclude obesity from childhood, because
obesity puts one at risk for coronary heart disease,
hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke and cancers of the
uterus, prostate, colon and breast.
Obesity will cut short life expectancy because of the
is included here as a factor because it is one of the
principles in nutritional health.
Research shows that exercise aids a person to be
healthy and to live long. Exercises
that are good for the body are aerobic ones. Aerobic exercises
like jogging, climbing steps, swimming, biking and dancing
will increase life expectancy. Aerobic activities increase the
respiration rate, so oxygen is provided for metabolism of fat
and carbohydrates. With
exercise, fat stores are used for energy and lean body mass is
increased; and muscle tone also improves.
Exercise gives anyone, an inclination to live long and
lead a happy life. Patients
with certain diseases should consult a doctor before starting
an exercise program because some of the exercises can hamper
their health status. Fitness can assist a person to maintain
good physical, mental, social and spiritual health.
Practise nutritional education
regarding nutrition is very essential.
People should know what constitutes good health.
A balanced diet should be maintained to live long and
slow down aging. It is
good to know what are the causes and preventive measures of
obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke and others.
The authors book itself can be a useful book for the
readers on how to prevent various diseases nutritionally.
When they know the importance of nutritional education,
they should follow it, as it will benefit their health.
It is important to teach nutrition from childhood, so
that one can lead healthy life and increase life expectancy.
Above all one is to follow the principles of God and
remember that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.
following secrets of longevity have been revealed after the
author conducted interviews with people whose age was more
than 80 years.
first secret and second secret are in relation to spiritual
life style. If you detest being spiritual, you don't have to
read first and second secrets.
first secret is to do the will of God.
If we do the will of God, we will receive eternal life.
Mathew 7:21 says, Not
all who call Lord, Lord shall enter the kingdom of heaven but
he that doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven.
So we must do the will of God.
We can do His will by keeping His 10 commandments. In
John 14:15, Lord Jesus says, If you love Me, keep My
commandments. We are to
keep His commandments for they can prolong life.
The fifth commandment in Exodus 20:15 states, Honor thy
father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the land
which God giveth thee. Hence, we are to honor our parents and
obey God. Acts 5:29
states, We ought to obey God rather than man.
second secret is to read the Holy Bible and pray to Lord
Jesus. When you read
& follow the Bible and pray you will get happiness in life
because reading the Bible is spiritual food.
Therefore, read the Bible and pray.
When you read the Bible, you can find golden
instructions and advice of diamond.
Matthew 6:33 states, Seek ye first the
and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added
unto you. All these things may mean happiness, financial
support, peace of mind and long life.
Research studies have shown persons with sound faith and
patients with belief in God survive longer than those who have
no faith whatsoever.
third secret of longevity is eating a balanced diet.
When you eat balanced diet, youll maintain good body
weight and not suffer from obesity or under weight. Eat
diet with contains high fiber, rich supply of
nutritional antioxidants and low fat.
This helps to prevent a lot of diseases.
fourth secret is to drink lots of water.